Main Article Content


Infrared thermography analyzes changes in the surface temperature of the skin and has been used in companion animals to identify inflammatory processes, neoplasia, pain, and neuropathies. This study evaluated and compared surgical wound surface temperatures in Nigerian Indigenous Dogs (NID). Nigerian indigenous dogs are a medium-sized breed that weighs between 8 to 30 kg with moderate hair length, and a mesocephalic cranial index. The dogs were randomly allocated into groups A, B, and C for castration, otectomy, and gastrotomy, respectively. The wound surface temperature (WST) in the NID that underwent gastrotomy were significantly higher particularly at 18-48 h compared with Pre and other sampling periods within the group. It was also found that, at 0 h versus 48 h, 18 h versus 48 h, week 1 versus 18h; 24h; 48h; and 72h showed significant (p < 0.05) differences among NID subjected to gastrotomy (group C). However, the WST of NID subjected to castration and otectomy were significantly higher than that of gastrotomy. At 48 and 72 h, and week 1, the WST of NID in otectomy also known as ear cropping (group B) and castration (group A) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of gastrotomy (Group C). Thermography of the surgical wounds aided postoperative wound management in the NID that underwent castration, otectomy and gastrotomy. Hence, the study suggests that guided WST with the aid of infrared thermography could be deployed as a useful tool to aid post operative wound management.



Dog; Ear Cropping; Gastrotomy; Thermography; Otectomy

Article Details

Author Biographies

J. O. Olorunfemi, Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri.



D. Laku, Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri



How to Cite
Saidu , A. M., Olorunfemi, J. O., & Laku, D. (2023). Infrared Thermography following Castration, Otectomy and Gastrotomy in ‎Nigerian Indigenous Dogs. Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 20(1), 50-56.


  1. Arruda, T. Z., Brass, K. E. and Flavio, D. (2011). ‎Thermographic assessment of saddles used on ‎jumping horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, ‎‎31 (11): 625-629 DOI: ‎‎
  2. Bailey, C., Kitchell, R., Haghighi, S. and Johnson, R. (1984). ‎Cutaneous innervation of the thorax and abdomen of ‎the dog. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 45 ‎‎(9): 1689-1698.‎
  3. Bappah, M., Awasum, C., Chom, N., Lawal, M., Bada, A., ‎Ochube, G., Umar, M., Hassan, A. and Hassan, F. ‎‎(2019a). Relationship between ultrasonographic ‎kidney bipolar length and body weight in normal ‎Nigerian indigenous dogs. Savannah Veterinary ‎Journal, 2 (2): 24-28 DOI: 10.36759/svj.2019.037.‎
  4. Bappah, M., Awasum, C., Chom, N., Lawal, M., Bello, U., ‎Bada, A., Idris, S. and Ochube, G. (2019b). Correlation ‎of ultrasonographic renal volume with modified body ‎mass index in Nigerian indigenous dogs. Sokoto ‎Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 17 (3): 9-16. DOI: ‎‎10.4314/sokjvs.v17i3.2.‎
  5. Biondi, F., Dornbusch, P. T., Sampaio, M. and ‎Montiani‐Ferreira, F. (2015). Infrared ocular ‎thermography in dogs with and without ‎keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Veterinary Ophthalmology, ‎‎18 (1): 28-34 DOI: ‎‎
  6. Brunn, A. (2022). Surgical castration in dogs: does the incision ‎approach influence postoperative recovery? ‎Veterinary Evidence, 7 (4): DOI: ‎‎
  7. Busch, T. (1983). Canine ear cropping. New Zealand ‎Veterinary Journal, 31 (11): DOI: ‎‎
  8. Cilulko, J., Janiszewski, P., Bogdaszewski, M. and Szczygielska, ‎E. (2013). Infrared thermal imaging in studies of wild ‎animals. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 59 ‎‎(1): 17-23 DOI:‎‎012-0688-1.‎
  9. Cole, L. K. (2009). Anatomy and physiology of the canine ear. ‎Veterinary Dermatology, 20 (5‐6): 412-421 DOI: ‎‎
  10. Cusack, B. and Buggy, D. (2020). Anaesthesia, analgesia, and ‎the surgical stress response. BJA education, 20 (9): ‎‎321 DOI: ‎‎
  11. Dai, F., Cogi, N. H., Heinzl, E. U. L., Dalla Costa, E., Canali, E. ‎and Minero, M. (2015). Validation of a fear test in ‎sport horses using infrared thermography. Journal of ‎Veterinary Behavior, 10 (2): 128-136 DOI: ‎‎
  12. Dewitt, S., Chavez, S. A., Perkins, J., Long, B. and Koyfman, A. ‎‎(2017). Evaluation of fever in the emergency ‎department. The American Journal of Emergency ‎Medicine, 35 (11): 1755-1758 DOI: ‎‎
  13. Eugster, S., Schawalder, P., Gaschen, F. and Boerlin, P. (2004). ‎A prospective study of postoperative surgical site ‎infections in dogs and cats. Veterinary surgery, 33 (5): ‎‎542-550 DOI:‎‎950X.2004.04076.x.‎
  14. Fonseca, B., Alves, A. L. G., Nicoletti, J., Thomassian, A., ‎Hussni, C. A. and Mikail, S. (2006). Thermography ‎and ultrasonography in back pain diagnosis of equine ‎athletes. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 26 ‎‎(11): 507-516 DOI: ‎‎
  15. Garcia, R. A. and Sajjad, H. (2019). Anatomy, abdomen and ‎pelvis, scrotum. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure ‎Island (FL) [Online]. [Accessed 2022 Jan–2022 Jul ‎‎25].‎
  16. Gethin, G., Ivory, J. D., Sezgin, D., Muller, H., O'connor, G. and ‎Vellinga, A. (2021). What is the “normal” wound bed ‎temperature? A scoping review and new hypothesis. ‎Wound Repair Regeneration, 29 (5): 843-847 DOI: ‎‎
  17. Grossbard, B. P., Loughin, C. A., Marino, D. J., Marino, L. J., ‎Sackman, J., Umbaugh, S. E., Solt, P. S., Afruz, J., ‎Leando, P. and Lesser, M. L. (2014). Medical infrared ‎imaging (thermography) of type I thoracolumbar disk ‎disease in chondrodystrophic dogs. Veterinary ‎Surgery, 43 (7): 869-876 DOI: ‎‎
  18. Kanitakis, J. (2002). Anatomy, histology and ‎immunohistochemistry of normal human skin. ‎European Journal of Dermatology 12 (4): 390-399 ‎DOI: 12095893.‎
  19. Levet, T., Martens, A., Devisscher, L., Duchateau, L., Bogaert, ‎L. andVlaminck, L. (2009). Distal limb cast sores in ‎horses: risk factors and early detection using ‎thermography. Equine Veterinary Journal, 41 (1): 18-‎‎23 DOI: ‎‎
  20. Lin, Y.H., Chen, Y.C., Cheng, K.S., Yu, P.J., Wang, J.L. and Ko, ‎N.Y. (2021). Higher periwound temperature associated ‎with wound healing of pressure ulcers detected by ‎infrared thermography. Journal of Clinical Medicine, ‎‎10 (13): 2883.‎
  21. Marino, D. J. (2011). Medical infrared imaging (thermography) ‎in veterinary neurology. American College of ‎Veterinary Surgeons, Chicago, Chicago. 244-245.‎
  22. Matera, A., PezzuttiHolzchuh, M., Spicciati, W. and Elias ‎Randi, R. (1989). Simplified surgical technique of ear ‎cropping. Brazilian journal of veterinary research and ‎animal science, 26 (2): 213-221 DOI: vti-726949.‎
  23. Mccafferty, D., Gilbert, C., Paterson, W., Pomeroy, P., ‎Thompson, D., Currie, J. and Ancel, A. (2011). ‎Estimating metabolic heat loss in birds and mammals ‎by combining infrared thermography with biophysical ‎modelling. Comparative Biochemistry Physiology Part ‎A: Molecular Integrative Physiology, 158 (3): 337-345 ‎DOI:‎
  24. Mccafferty, D. J., Currie, J. and Sparling, C. E. (2007). The ‎effect of instrument attachment on the surface ‎temperature of juvenile grey seals (Halichoerus ‎grypus) as measured by infrared thermography. Deep ‎Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in ‎Oceanography, 54 (3-4): 424-436 DOI: ‎‎
  25. Meola, C. and Carlomagno, G. M. (2004). Recent advances in ‎the use of infrared thermography. Measurement ‎science technology, 15 (9): R27 DOI: ‎‎
  26. Pavelski, M., Silva, D., Leite, N., Junior, D., De Sousa, R., ‎Guérios, S. andDornbusch, P. (2015). Infrared T ‎hermography in Dogs with Mammary Tumors and ‎Healthy Dogs. Journal of veterinary internal medicine, ‎‎29 (6): 1578-1583 DOI: ‎‎
  27. Pets - Nairaland, F. (2023). All About the Nigerian Shepherd ‎Dog (Ekuke, Nkita) [Online]. Nigeria: Nairaland. ‎Available:‎nigerian-shepherd-dog-ekuke [Accessed 24/03/2023 ‎‎2023].‎
  28. Rainwater-Lovett, K., Pacheco, J. M., Packer, C. and ‎Rodriguez, L. L. (2009). Detection of foot-and-mouth ‎disease virus infected cattle using infrared ‎thermography. The Veterinary Journal, 180 (3): 317-‎‎324 DOI: ‎‎
  29. Ramirez-Garcialuna, J. L., Rangel-Berridi, K., Bartlett, R., ‎Fraser, R. D. and Martinez-Jimenez, M. A. (2022). Use ‎of Infrared Thermal Imaging for Assessing Acute ‎Inflammatory Changes: A Case Series. Cureus, 14 (9): ‎DOI: 10.7759/cureus.28980.‎
  30. Redaelli, V., Bergero, D., Zucca, E., Ferrucci, F., Costa, L. N., ‎Crosta, L. and Luzi, F. (2014). Use of thermography ‎techniques in equines: principles and applications. ‎Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 34 (3): 345-350 ‎DOI:‎
  31. Soroko, M., Henklewski, R., Filipowski, H. and Jodkowska, E. ‎‎(2013). The effectiveness of thermographic analysis in ‎equine orthopedics. Journal of equine veterinary ‎science, 33 (9): 760-762 DOI: ‎‎
  32. Stewart, M., Webster, J., Verkerk, G., Schaefer, A., Colyn, J. and ‎Stafford, K. (2007). Non-invasive measurement of ‎stress in dairy cows using infrared thermography. ‎Physiology behaviour, 92 (3): 520-525 DOI: ‎‎
  33. Szpaderska, A. M. and Dipietro, L. A. (2005). Inflammation in ‎surgical wound healing: friend or foe? Surgery, 137 ‎‎(5): 571-573 DOI: ‎‎
  34. Turner, T. A. (2001). Diagnostic thermography. Veterinary ‎Clinics of North America: Equine Practice, 17 (1): 95-‎‎114.‎
  35. Vainionpää, M. (2014). Thermographic imaging in cats and ‎dogs: usability as a clinical method. PhD Thesis, ‎University of Helsinki.‎
  36. Vainionpää, M., Tienhaara, E.-P., Raekallio, M., Junnila, J., ‎Snellman, M. and Vainio, O. (2012). Thermographic ‎Imaging of the Superficial Temperature in Racing ‎Greyhounds before and after the Race. The Scientific ‎World Journal, 2012 DOI: ‎‎
  37. Vainionpää, M. H., Raekallio, M. R., Junnila, J. J., Hielm-‎Björkman, A. K., Snellman, M. P. and Vainio, O. M. ‎‎(2013). A comparison of thermographic imaging, ‎physical examination and modified questionnaire as ‎an instrument to assess painful conditions in cats. ‎Journal of Feline Medicine Surgery, 15 (2): 124-131 ‎DOI:‎
  38. Van Hoogmoed, L. M. and Snyder, J. R. (2002). Use of infrared ‎thermography to detect injections and palmar digital ‎neurectomy in horses. The Veterinary Journal, 164 (2): ‎‎129-141 DOI: ‎‎
  39. Walters, T. J., Blick, D. W., Johnson, L. R., Adair, E. R. and ‎Foster, K. R. (2000). Heating and pain sensation ‎produced in human skin by millimeter waves: ‎comparison to a simple thermal model. Health ‎physics, 78 (3): 259-267 DOI: ‎‎‎00003.‎
  40. Wang, Z., Ying, Z., Bosy-Westphal, A., Zhang, J., Schautz, B., ‎Later, W., Heymsfield, S. B. and Müller, M. (2010). ‎Specific metabolic rates of major organs and tissues ‎across adulthood: evaluation by mechanistic model ‎of resting energy expenditure. The American journal ‎of clinical nutrition, 92 (6): 1369-1377 DOI: ‎‎10.3945/ajcn.2010.29885.‎
  41. Webb, P. I., Speakman, J. R. and Racey, P. A. (1993). The ‎implication of small reductions in body temperature ‎for radiant and convective heat loss in resting ‎endothermic brown long-eared bats (Plecotusauritus). ‎Journal of thermal biology, 18 (3): 131-135.‎
  42. Whalen, L. and Kitchell, R. (1983). Electrophysiologic and ‎behavioral studies of the cutaneous nerves of the ‎concave surface of the pinna and the external ear ‎canal of the dog. American Journal of Veterinary ‎Research, 44 (4): 628-634.‎
  43. Willot, M. (1980). Otectomy (ear cropping) of Briard dogs. ‎Point Veterinaire, 10 (48): 16-25 DOI: 19802259172.‎
  44. Woodruff, K., Rigdon-Brestle, K., Bushby, P., Wills, R. and ‎Huston, C. (2015). Scrotal castration versus prescrotal ‎castration in dogs. Veterinary Medicine, 110 (5): 131-‎‎135.‎
  45. Yoon, H. Y., Kang, M. G. and Jeong, S. W. (2009). Gastrotomy ‎approach retrieval of esophageal foreign body using ‎long forceps technique in five dogs. Journal of ‎Veterinary Clinics, 26 (6): 628-631.‎