Main Article Content
Newcastle Disease (ND) is a contagious viral disease of birds affecting many domestic and wild avian species. Even though vaccines and vaccination schedules are currently being employed in the prevention of the disease, prevention and control are still a problem in the poultry industry. This study was conducted at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH), Ahmadu Bello University (A.B.U), Zaria and the aim was to determine the monthly, yearly and seasonal prevalence of ND diagnosed in the Avian Clinic of the VTH, A.B.U., Zaria. Case record files were collected, studied, and clinically diagnosed cases of ND for five years (2014-2018) were extracted. Diagnosis of ND was by history of the case, clinical findings and post mortem lesions observed. Results showed that out of 1,768 cases of poultry presented, 42.6% (754 cases) were confirmed via necropsy findings as ND. The highest number of cases of the disease was in June having a prevalence of 4.98% followed by March with a prevalence of 4.64% and July with a prevalence of 4.47%. The annual prevalence was highest in 2014 (14.82%). The cases of ND were observed to be higher in the pre-rainy season (April to June) with a prevalence of 12.33%. The environmental stress condition of these periods of the year was likely to be the main reason that potentiate and worsen the occurrence of ND at these periods. Also, stress condition suppresses the immune system of birds making them more susceptible to infection leading to an outbreak of disease. It is recommended to administer anti-stress before these periods in order to protect the birds from the disease.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Abdu, P.A., George, J.B. and Umoh, J.U. (1985). A study of poultry disease diagnosed at Zaria from 1981 t0 1984. Nigerian Veterinary Journal, 14(1):63-65.
Abdu, P.A. (2005). Evolution and Pathogenicity of Newcastle disease virus and its implication for diagnosis and control. Proceedings of the Workshop on Improved Disease Diagnosis, Health, Nutrition and Risk Management Practice in Poultry, November 29– December, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
Abdu, P.A., Jahun, B.M. and Sa’idu, L. (1992). Effects of disease on egg production in chickens in Zaria, Nigeria. In: Proceedings of the National Workshop on Livestock and Veterinary Services, Vom, Nigeria. Pp 29-33
Abdu, P.A, Sa’idu, L., Bawa, E.K. and Umoh, J.U. (2005a). Factors that contribute to Newcastle disease, Infectious bursal disease and fowl pox outbreaks in chickens. Presented at the 42nd Annual Congress of the Nigerain Veterinary Medical Association, held at university of Maiduguri, 14th – 18th November, 2005.
Abdu, P.A., Bawa, E.K., Umoh, J.U. and Sa’idu, L. (2005b). Factors that contribute to Newcastle disease, Infectious bursal disease and fowl pox outbreaks in vaccinated chickens. Presented at the 42nd Annual Congress of the Nigerain Veterinary Medical Association, held at university of Maiduguri, 14th – 18th November, 2005.
Adamu, A.Y., Ahmed, A.B., Abubakar, M.B. and Lawal, M.D. (2009). A retrospective study (2004-2008) of poultry diseases diagnosed in Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH), Usman Danfodio University, Sokoto (UDUS) and Sokoto Veterinary Centre (SVC), Sokoto State, Nigeria. International Journal of Animal Veterinary Advances, 1: 15-17.
Adene, D.F., Oladele, O., Akpavie, S. and Lawal, J. (2003). Immunogenicity and safety of a new viscereotropic Newcastle disease vaccine. In: Proceeding 0f 13th Congress of World Veterinary Poultry Association, July 19-23 Denver Pp 143-144.
Alders, R. and Spradbrow, P.B. (2001). Controlling Newcastle Disease in Village Chickens. A field manual. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. Monograph No. 82. Pp 37.
Alexander, D.J. (2001). Newcastle disease. British Poultry Science, 42: 5-22.
Alexander, D.J. and Senne, D.A. (2008). Newcastle disease In: Disease of Poultry, twelve edition, (Saif Y.M., Fadly, A.M., Glisson, J.R., McDougald, L.R., Nolan, L.K. and Swayne, D.E., editors). Blackwell Publishers, Asia. Pp 75-115.
Al-Garib, S.O, Geikens, A.L.J, and Koch, G. (2003). Review of Newcastle disease virus with particular references to immunity and vaccination. World’s Poultry Science Journal 59: 158-200.
Aliyu, H.B., Sa’idu, L., Abdu, P.A. and Oladele, S.B. (2014). Response of commercial chickens to challenge with Newcastle disease virus (Kudu 1143 Strain) following immunization with different Newcastle disease vaccines. Presented at 51st Congress of Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association held in Kaduna- 2014.Pp. 151.
Chansiripornchai, N. and Sasipreeyajan, J. (2006). Efficacy of live B1 or ulster 2C Newcastle disease vaccine simultaneously vaccinated with inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine for protection of Newcastle disease virus in broiler chickens. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 48: 1-4
Ezeibe, M.C.O., Nwokike, E.C., Eze, J.I. and Eze, I.C. (2006). Detection and characterization of Newcastle disease virus from feaces of healthy free-roaming chickens in Nsukka, Nigeria. Tropical Veterinarian, 24(4): 76-80.
Halle, P.D., Umoh, J.O., Sa’idu, L. and Abdu, P.A. (1999). Prevalence and seasonality of Newcastle disease in Zaria, Nigeria. Tropical Veterinarian, 17(1): 53-62.
Okwor, E.C., Eze, D.C., Ngwu, M.I., Ononiwu, C.N. and Echeonwu, G.O.N. (2010). Antibody profile in laying birds vaccinated with Newcastle vaccine, La Sota. Nigerian Veterinary Journal 31(2): 148-153.
Olabode, A.O., Okwori, A.E.J., Echeonwu, G.O.N., Hodo, S.O., Adeyanju, O.N. and Oguntayo, B.O. (2006). Antibody levels against Newcastle disease virus in rural chickens at slaughter point in Kubwa village, Abuja, Nigeria. Journal of Life Science, 8(1): 449-454.
Olabode, H.O.K., Damina M.S., Ahmed, A.S, Moses, G.D. and Wungak, Y.S. (2012). Retrospective study of Newcastle disease in commercial poultry farms in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Vom Journal of Veterinary Science, 9: 66-70.
Oladele, S.B., Abdu, P.A., Nok. A.J., Esievo, K.A.N. and Useh, N.M. (2002). Preliminary report on neuraminidase, erythrocyte surface and free serum sialic acid concentrations in the serum of health and Newcastle infected chickens. Revue D’elevageet de Medecine Veteriinaire Des Pays Tropicaux, 55(4): 265-268.
Musa, U., Abdu, P.A., Dafwang, I.I., Umoh, J.U., Sa’idu, L., Mera, U.M., and Edache, J.A. (2009). Seroprevalence, Seasonal occurrence and clinical manifestation of Newcastle disease in rural household chickens in Plateau State, Nigeria, International Journal of Poultry Science 8: 200-204.
Sadiq, M.A., Nwanta, J.A., Okolocha, E.C. and Tijani, A.N. (2011). Retrospective Study of Newcastle disease cases in Avian Species in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. International Journal of Poultry Science, 10(1):76-81.
Sa’idu, L. and Abdu, P.A. (2008). Outbreak of viscerotrogic velogenic form of Newcastle disease in vaccinated six weeks old pullets. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Science, 7:37-40.
Sa’idu, L, Abdu, P.A., Umoh, J.U. and Abdullah, U.S. (1994). Disease of Nigerian Indigenous chickens. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 42(1): 19-23.
Sa’idu, L., Abdu, P.A., Tekdek, L.B. and Umoh, J.U. (2006). Retrospective study of Newcastle disease cases in Zaria, Nigeria. Nigerian Veterinary Journal, 27(2): 53-62.
Sa’idu, L., Abdu, P.A., Tekdek, L.B., Umoh, J.U., Usman, M. and Oladele, S.B. (2006). Newcastle disease in Nigeria. Nigerian Veterinary Journal, 27: 23-32.
Tu, T.D., Phuc, K.V., Dinh, N.T.K., Quoc, D.N. and Spradbrow, P.B. (1998). Vietnam trials with a thormostable vaccine (strain 12) in experimental and village chickens. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 34: 205-214.
Sa'idu, L, Tekdek, L.B. and Abdu, P.A. (2004). Prevalence of Newcastle disease antibiotics in domestic and semi-domestic birds in Zaria Nigeria. Veterinarski arhiv, 2004; 74:309-317.
Oladele, B.S., Abdu, P.A., Nok, A.J., Esievo, K.A.N. and Useh, N.M. (2002). Effect of some
inhibitors on neuramimidase of Newcastle disease virus Kudu 113
strain. Veterinarski arhiv, 72:185-194.