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Q fever is a bacterial zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetiiwith global epidemiology. Transmission of the disease in humans is mainly via inhalation of aerosolized bacteria and consumption of contaminated unpasteurized milk, while in animals it is through ingestion of contaminated pasture during grazing by susceptible animals. The disease is usually asymptomatic in animals, but has been implicated in abortion, stillbirths, endometritis, mastitis and infertility. In humans, it manifests as acute and chronic forms with the acute form having signs as self-limiting flu-like syndrome, pneumonia and hepatitis. Diagnosis is mainly through serology using ELISA, CFT, dot immunoblotting, and molecular assay. This study aimed at reviewing the literature to provide relevant information on the epidemiology and risk factors of Coxiella infection in Nigeria. The disease had been reported in all the geopolitical zones of Nigeria and it is said to have no breed, sex and age predisposition. Some of the risk factors identified to play vital roles in the epidemiology of the disease in Nigeria include husbandry and management practices, transboundary transfer of animals, poor hygiene at abattoirs as well as poor knowledge, attitude, and practices by livestock owners and abattoir personnel. It is recommended that there should be public enlightenment along with continuous education of stakeholders in the livestock industry on the significance of the disease.


Coxiella infection;Epidemiology; Public health; Risk factors

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How to Cite
Baba, A. Y., Saidu, S. N. A., Kaltungo, B. Y., Ibrahim, S., & Buhari, U. H. (2023). The Epidemiology of Coxiella infections in Domestic Animals and Humans in ‎Nigeria: A Review. Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 20(1), 1-12.


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