Main Article Content


Exertional Rhabdomyolysis is an imbalance between the animal's diet and its workload, especially when on a high-grain diet. An 11-year-old Argentine mare weighing 360 Kg was presented with a complaint of pyrexia, anorexia, pointed stance and stiff gait, reluctance to move and trembling when compelled to walk. On physical examination, body condition score of 2.5/5, excessive sweating, stiff hind quarters, and reluctance to move were observed. On clinical examination, the animal showed tachypnea, congested ocular mucous membrane and a temperature of 38.9oC. Blood sample was taken for complete blood cell count and biochemical test. The result of haematological test was within normal range while the biochemical test revealed hypoglycemia, hypochloremia, hyponatremia and hypokalemia.  The levels of calcium, creatine kinase and bicarbonate were higher than the normal range. A diagnosis of azoturia was made based on history, clinical signs and laboratory test. The movement of the horse was restricted and it was treated with 0.6 mg/kg meloxicam daily for 5 days, 0.2mg/kg dexamethasone daily for 2 days, 12 ml of VitESe daily for 3 days and 60ml of Promin® daily for 3 days. The horse was given gentle walking exercise and low carbohydrate diet during the treatment period and normal function of the horse gradually returned 4 weeks after presentation. It was concluded that exertional rhabdomyolysis can be managed by administration of analgesic and anti-inflammatory, restricted carbohydrate diet and limited exercise until muscle function returns to normal.


Exertional Rhabdomyolysis; Haematology; Biochemistry; Anti-inflammatory

Article Details

How to Cite
A Case of Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in an 11-year-old Argentine Mare ‎. (2022). Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 19(4), 20-23.

How to Cite

A Case of Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in an 11-year-old Argentine Mare ‎. (2022). Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 19(4), 20-23.


  1. Arighi, M.B., Baird, J.D. and Hulland, 1.J. (1984). Equine ‎exertional rhabdomyolysis.Compen. Conti. Educ. ‎Vet.,6(12):726-732. ‎
  2. Bayoumi, Y.H. (2018).Role of the Serum Muscular ‎Enzymes in the Diagnosis of Post-‎ Exertional ‎Rhabdomyolysis in Draft Horses Used in ‎Transplant Rice Seedlings. Zagazig Vet. J., 46 (1): ‎‎79-87. DOI: 10.21608/zvjz.2018.7627‎
  3. Beratta, G., Garavaglia, G. and Cavalli, M. (2005). COX-1 ‎and COX-2 inhibition in Horse Blood by ‎Phenylbutazon, Flunixin, Carproten and ‎Melxicam: An in vitro analysis. Pharmacol. Res., ‎‎52 (4): 302-306. DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2005.04.004‎
  4. Biles, A. L (2015). Horse Health: Tying-Up and Azoturia, a ‎Metabolic Disorder: Typing-Up and Azoturia are ‎Equine Exertional Rhabdomyolysis, the most ‎common muscle problem in horses. Equestrian's ‎Academy: Equestrian's Academy. Accessed, ‎‎30/5/2022, 2.10pm.‎
  5. Boyd, J.W. (1984). The interpretation of Serum ‎Biochemistry Test results in Domestic animals, in ‎Veterinary Clinical Pathology, Veterinary Practice ‎publishing Co., 13: 2.‎
  6. Duncan, J.R. and Prasse, K.W. (1977). Veterinary ‎Laboratory Medicine, 1st Edition. Iowa State ‎University Press. Ames. Iowa. Pp.30 -32.‎
  7. El-Ashker, M.R. (2012). Diagnostic efficiency of selected ‎biochemical variables to predict the clinical ‎outcome of exertional rhabdomyolysis in Egyptian ‎draft horses. Comp. Clin. Pathol., 21(5): 1103-‎‎1108. DOI: 10.1007/s00580-011-1240-5‎
  8. EL-Deeb, W.M. and El-Bahr, S.M. (2010). Investigation of ‎selected biochemical indicators of Equine ‎Rhabdomyolysis in Arabian horses: Pro-‎inflammatory cytokines and oxidative ‎stressmarkers. Veterinary Research Communications, 34(8):677-689. DOI: 10.1007/s11259-010-‎‎9439-5‎
  9. Engelking, L.R. (2015). A textbook of Veterinary Physical ‎Chemistry.3rd Edition, Chapter 89, Page 576 – 583.‎
  10. Hodgson, D. (1985). Myopathies in the' athletic horse. ‎Compen. Conti. Educ. Vet.,7(10):551- 556.‎
  11. Isgren, C.M., Upjohn, M.M., Fernandez Fuente, M., Massey, ‎C., Pollott, G., , Verheyen,K. L.P. and Piercy, R.J. ‎‎(2010). Epidemiology of Exertional ‎Rhabdomyolysis Susceptibility in Standardbred ‎Horses Reveals Associated Risk Factors and ‎Underlying Enhanced ‎ Performance. PLoS ‎One., 5(7): e11594. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.00‎‎11594‎
  12. Knoepfli, A. B. (2002). Exertional rhabdomyolysis in a 4-‎year-old standardbred filly.Can. Vet. J., 43(4): ‎‎293–295.‎
  13. Kosa C.A., Nagy, K., Szenci, O., Baska-Vincze, B.E., ‎Andrasofszky, E., Robert, S.Z., ‎ Keresztesi, A., ‎Mircean, M., Taules, M. and Kutas, O. (2021). The ‎role of Selenium and Vitamin E in a Transylvanian ‎Enzootic equine recurrent rhabdomyolysis. Acta. ‎Vet. Hung., 69 (3):256 265.. DOI: 10.1556/004.20‎‎21.00031‎
  14. Mckenzie, E.C., Valberg, S.J. and Pagan, J.D. (2020). A ‎Review of Dietary Fat Supplementation in Horses ‎with Exertional Rhabdomyolysis Department of ‎Clinical and Population Sciences, College ‎of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, ‎St. Paul, MN 55108 (McKenzie, Valberg); ‎Kentucky Equine Research Inc., 3910 Delaney ‎Ferry ‎ Road, Versailles, KY 40383. ‎‎exertional rhabdomyolysis. Accessed 31/3/2022. ‎‎4.20pm.‎
  15. Norton, E.M., Mickelson, J.R., Binns, M.M., Blott, S.C., ‎Caputo, P., Isgren, C.M., McCoy A.M., Moore, ‎A., Piercy, R.J., Swinburne, J.E., Vaudin, M. and ‎McCue, M.E. (2016). Heritability of Recurrent ‎Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in Standardbred and ‎Thoroughbred Racehorses Derived From SNP ‎Genotyping Data. J. Hered., 107: (6) 537–543. ‎DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esw042‎
  16. Quist, E.M., Dougherty, J.J., Chaffin, M.K. and Porter, B.F. ‎‎(2011): Diagnostic Exercise: Equine RabdomyolysiVet. Pathol. 48(6): E52 E58.‎‎00985811414034‎
  17. Siciliano, P., Lawrence, L.M., Danielsen, K. and Powell, ‎D.M. (2010). Effect of Conditioning and exercise ‎type of serum kinase and aspartate ‎aminotransferase ‎activity. Equine Vet. J., 27(S18):243 247. DOI: 10.‎‎1136/vr.156.24.763‎
  18. Stuck, E.K. and Reinertson, E. L. (1987). Equine Exertional ‎Myopathy. Iowa State University ‎ Veterinarian, ‎‎49 (1): 56-60.‎
  19. Upjohn, M. M., Archer, R.M., Christley, R.M. and ‎McGowan, C.M. (2005). Incidence and risk factors ‎associated with exertional rhabdomyolysis ‎syndrome in National Hunt racehorses in Great ‎Britain. Vet. Rec.,15:763–766.‎
  20. Valberg, S. J. (2016). Exertional Myopathies in Horses. ‎Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA. ‎ Accessed ‎‎31/3/2022. 4.30 pm.‎
  21. Valentine, B.A., de Lahunta, A., Divers, T.J., Ducharme, ‎N.G. and Orcutt, R.S. (1999). Clinical ‎ and ‎pathologic findings in two draft horses with ‎progressive muscle atrophy, neuromuscular ‎weakness, and abnormal gait characteristic of ‎shivers syndrome. JAVMA.,215(11): 1661-1665. ‎
  22. Vetlexicon (2021)., 20/12/22‎