Main Article Content


The effects of honey and beebread on some haematological parameters were investigated in fifteen apparently healthy adult albino male mice. The mice were divided into three groups of five mice each after a two-week period of acclimatization. The mice in group A were given distilled water orally to serve as a control while those in groups B and C were administered honey and beebread respectively by gavages at the dose rate of 1g/kg body weight and at a concentration of 40% w/v using water as a vehicle, once daily for 70 consecutive days. Micro-haematocrit and hematocytometry were used for determination of packed cell volume and erythrocyte and differential leucocyte counts, respectively. Haemoglobin concentration was estimated by using Cyanmethemoglobin method. There were significant (p ˂0.05) increases in the red blood cells count, packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration in the treatment groups compared to the control group, with the most increase observed in the group treated with beebread. There was significant (p ˂ 0.05) increase in total leucocyte count in the treated groups with the highest count recorded in the honey treated group than the control. Lymphocytes and neutrophils significantly (p ˂ 0.05) increased in the treatment groups but there were no significant (P > 0.05) changes in the number of eosinophils, basophils and monocytes. The study demonstrates the positive haematopoietic effects of supplementation of feed with honey and beebread.



Beebread; Erythrocytes; Honey; Leucocytes; Mice

Article Details

How to Cite
Igbokwe, N. A., Omeh, I. J., & Kashim, G. (2022). Beebread and Honey improves some Haematologic Parameters in Male ‎Albino Mice. Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 19(3), 37-41.


  1. Al-Waili, N.S. (2003). Effects of daily consumption of ‎honey solution on hematological indices and blood ‎levels of minerals and enzymes in normal ‎individuals. Journal of Medicine and Food, 6 ‎‎(2):135-140. ‎‎
  2. Al-Waili, N., Al-Waili, T., Al-Waili, A. and Saloom, K. ‎‎(2006). Influence of Natural Honey on ‎Biochemical and Hematological Variables in ‎AIDS: A case study. TheScientific World Journal, ‎‎6:1985-1989. ‎‎
  3. Attia, Y.A. and Elnaggar, A.S. (2014). Productive ‎performance, biochemical and hematological traits ‎of broiler chickens supplemented with propolis, bee ‎pollen and mannan oligosaccharides continuously ‎or intermittently. Livestock Science, 164:87-95. ‎‎
  4. Bakour, M., Al-Waili, N.A., Menyiy, N.E., Imtara, H., ‎Figuira, A.C., Al-Waili, T. and Lyoussi, B. (2017). ‎Antioxidant activity and protective effect of bee ‎bread (honey and pollen) in aluminium-induced ‎aneamia, elevation of inflammatory makers and ‎hepato-renal toxicity. Journal of Food Science & ‎Technology, 54:4205-4212. ‎‎
  5. Bakour, M.,Hassan, L., Driss, O., Asmae, E., Imane, E., ‎Hamza, M. and Badiaa, L. (2022). Beebread as a ‎promising source of bioactive molecules and ‎functional properties: An up to date review. ‎Antibiotics, 11(2), 203. ‎
  6. Baltrusaityte, V., Venskutonis, P.R. and Ceksteryte, V. ‎‎(2007). Radical scavenging activity of different ‎floral origin honey and bee bread phenolic ‎extracts. Food Chemistry, 101 (2):502-514. ‎‎
  7. Baranauskas, M.N., Powell, J., Fly, A.D., Martin, B.J., ‎Mickleborough, T.D., Paris, H.L. and Chapman, ‎R.F. (2020). Influence of zinc in the acute changes ‎in erythropoietin and pro inflammatory cytokines ‎with hypoxia. High Alternative Medical Biology, ‎‎10 (10): 89-90. ‎‎
  8. Berene, I., Daberte, I. and Siksan, S. (2015). Investigation ‎of beebread and development of its dosage forms. ‎Bee Bread. Medicinos, 21 (1):16-22. Doi: ‎‎10.15591/mtp.2015.003‎
  9. Bhalchandra, W., Alqadhi, Y.A. and Ninavde, A.S. (2018). ‎Ameliorative role of bee honey and royal jelly ‎against cisplatin induced alteration in ‎haematological parameters in male Wistar albino ‎rats. International Journal of Pharmacology and ‎Pharmaceutical Science, 10 (4):110-114. ‎‎‎3‎
  10. Blasa, M., Manila, C., Augusto, A., Piacentini, M.P. and ‎Piatti, E. (2007). Honey flavonoids as protection ‎agents against oxidative damage to human red ‎blood cells. Food Chemistry, 104 (4):1635-1640. ‎‎
  11. Chen, Y., Feng, H. and Jeng, S. (2018). Zinc ‎supplementation stimulates red blood cell ‎formation in rats. International Journal of ‎Molecular Science, 19 (9): 2824. ‎doi:10.3390/ijms19092824.‎
  12. CIOMS: Council for International Organization of Medical ‎Science (1985). International Guiding Principles for ‎Biomedical Research Involving Animals. WHO ‎‎1211, Geneva 27, Switzerland. ‎
  13. Ekanem, J. and Yusuf, O. (2007). Some liver function ‎indices and blood parameters in T. brucei – ‎infected rats treated with honey. Biokemistri, 19 ‎‎(2): 81-86. Doi:10.4314/biokem.V19i2.56429‎
  14. Farag, S. A. and El-Rayes, T. (2016). Research article effect ‎of bee-pollen supplementation on performance, ‎carcass traits and blood parameters of broiler ‎chickens. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary ‎Advances, 11(3), 168-77.‎
  15. Fukushima, T., Horike, H., Fujiki, S., Kitada, S., Sasaki, T. ‎and Kashikara, N. (2009). Zinc deficiency ‎anaemia and effects of zinc therapy in ‎maintenance of hemodialysis patients. ‎Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis, 13 (3): 213-‎‎219.‎‎9987.2009.006j6.x‎
  16. Gheldof, N., Wang, X.H. and Engeseth, N.J. (2002). ‎Identification and quantification of antioxidant ‎components of honeys from various floral sources. ‎Journal Agriculture Food Chemistry, 50: 5870-‎‎5877.‎
  17. GraphPad InStat (2018) ‎
  18. Haro, A., Lopez-Aliaga, I., Lisbona, F., Borrionuevo, M., ‎Alferez, M.J.M. and Campos, M.S. (2000). ‎Beneficial effect of pollen and/or propolis on the ‎metabolism of iron, calcium, phosphorus and ‎magnesium in rats with nutritional ferropenic ‎aneamia. Journal Agriculture Food Chemistry, ‎‎489 (11): 5712-5722. ‎
  19. Ihedioha, J.I., Ugwuja, J.I., Noel-Uneke, O.A., Udeani, I.J. ‎and Daniel-Igwe, G. (2012). Reference values for ‎the haematology profile of conventional grade ‎outbred albino mice (Mus musculus) in Nsukka, ‎eastern Nigeria. Animal Research International, ‎‎9(2): 1601-1612.‎
  20. Jaromir, L., Orsak, M., Alena, H. and Eva, K. (2009). ‎Evaluation of antioxidant activity and total ‎phenolics of selected Czech honeys. Journal of ‎Food Science and Technology, 43 (1): 52-58. ‎‎
  21. Joseph, T., Awah-Ndukum, J., Fonteh-Florence, A., ‎Delphine, N.D., Jonnas, P. and Ze-Antoine, M. ‎‎(2007). Physico-chemical and microbiological ‎characteristics of honey from the Sudano-Guinean ‎Zone of west Cameron, African Journal of ‎Biotechnology, 6 (7) 2: 908-913.‎
  22. Kassim, M., Mansor, M., Al-Abd, N. and Yusoff, K.M. ‎‎(2012). Gelam honey has a protective effect ‎against Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced organ ‎failure, International Journal of Molecular ‎Science, 13: 6370-6381. ‎‎
  23. Konomi, A., and Yokoi, K. (2005). Zinc deficiency ‎decreases plasma erythropoietin concentration in ‎rats. Biological Trace Elements Research, 107 (3): ‎‎289-292.‎
  24. Mara, F., Augusto, A., Blasa, M., Diamantini, G. and Piatti, ‎E. (2006). Flavonoids from Italian Multifloral ‎honeys reduce the extracellular Ferricyanide in ‎human red blood cells. Journal of Agriculture and ‎Food Chemistry, 54 (21): 8328-8334. ‎
  25. Mohammad, S.M., Mahmud-Ab-Rashid, N. and Zawawi, ‎N. (2020). Botanical Origin and Nutritional Values ‎of Bee Bread of Stingless Bee (Heterotrigona ‎itama) from Malaysia. Journal of Food Quality, ‎‎12-14.‎
  26. Muhammad, A., Oyeronke, A.O., Solomon, E.O., Michael, ‎A.G., Muhammad, I.C., Ahsana, D.F., Huma, R., ‎Ochuko, L.E. and Shakil, A. (2012). Daily ‎Consumption of Honey: Effects on Male Wister ‎Albino Rats. International Journal of Food ‎Nutrition and Safety, 1 (2): 66-74.‎
  27. Name, J.J., Vasconcelos, A.R., Souza, A.C.R and Fávaro, ‎W.J. (2021). Vitamin D, zinc and glutamine: ‎Synergistic action with OncoTherad ‎immunomodulator in interferon signaling and ‎COVID 19 (Review). International Journal of ‎Molecular Medicine, ‎‎
  28. ‎ Roohani, N., Hurrell, R., Kelishadi, R. and Schulin, R. ‎‎(2013). Zinc and its importance for human health: ‎An integrative review. Journal of Research in ‎Medical Sciences, 18 (20): 144-157. ‎PMCID:PMC3724376/PMID:23914218‎
  29. Salimi, A. and Pourahmad, J. (2018). Role of natural ‎compounds in prevention and treatment of chronic ‎lymphocytic leukemia. In: Prevention and ‎treatment of human disease. 2nd Edition. Eds; ‎Watson RR, Preedy VR, Zibadi S. Academic Press, ‎Massachusetts, USA. Pp 195-203.‎
  30. Samarghandian, S., Azimi-Nezhad, M., Shahri, A.M.P. and ‎Farkhondeh, T. (2019). Antidotal or protective ‎effects of honeyand chrysin, its major ‎polyphenols, against natural and chemical ‎toxicities. Acta Biomedica, 90 (4): 533-550. ‎Doi:10.23750/abm.V90i4.7534‎
  31. Schalm, O.W., Douglas, J.W. and Wardrop, K.J. (2011). ‎Schalm Veterinary Haematology. 6th edition. Pub. ‎Lea and Febiger Philadelphia.‎
  32. Singh, A.K. (2018): Erythropoiesis: The roles of ‎erythropoietin and iron. Chapter 12 In:Textbook of ‎Nephro-Endocrinolgy 2nd Edition. Editors: Singh, ‎A.J. and Willams, G.H. Academic Press, ‎Massachusetts, USA.‎
  33. Son, E., Lee, S., Chio, H., Koo, H., Huh, J., Kim, M., and ‎Pyo, S. (2007). Effects of supplementation with ‎higher levels of manganese and magnesium on ‎immune function. Archives of Pharmacal ‎Research, 30: 743-749. ‎‎
  34. Vilma, B., Petras, R.V. and Violeta, C. (2007). Radical ‎scavenging activity of different floral origin honey ‎and beebread phenolic extracts. Food Chemistry, ‎‎101 (2): 502-514. ‎‎
  35. Wali, A.F., Jabnoun, S., Razmpoor, M., Akbar, I., Dhaheri, ‎Y.A., Khan, A., Alshahrani, S., Alhazmi, H.A. and ‎Imtiyaz, Z. (2020). Chrysin, an important active ‎ingredient of honey: Beneficial pharmacological ‎activities and molecular mechanism of action. In: ‎Therapeutic applications of honey and its ‎phytochemicals. Springer, Singapore. Rehman Mu, ‎Majid S. (Eds). Pp 409-432. ‎‎
  36. Yaghoobi, N., Al-Waili, N., Ghayour-Mobarhan, M., ‎Parizadeh, S.M., Abasalti, Z., Yaghoobi, Z., ‎Yaghoobi, F., Esmaeili, H., Kazemi-Bajestani, ‎S.M., Aghasizadeh, R., Saloom, K.Y. and Ferns, ‎G.A. (2008). Natural Honey and Cardiovascular ‎Risk Factors; Effects on Blood Glucose, ‎Cholesterol, Triacylglyceride, CRP, and Body ‎Weight Compared with Sucrose. Scientific World ‎Journal, 8: 463–469. ‎‎
  37. Zeinali, M., Rezaree, S.A. and Hosseinzadeh, H. (2017). An ‎overview on immunoregulatory and anti-‎inflammatory properties of chrysin and flavonoids ‎substances. Biomedical Pharmacotherapy, 92: ‎‎998-1009. ‎‎
  38. Zuluaga, C.M., Serratob, J.C. and Quicazana, M.C. (2015). ‎Chemical, nutritional and bioactive ‎characterization of Colombian beebread. ‎Chemical Engineering Transactions, 43: 175-180. ‎Doi:10.3303/CETI543030‎