Main Article Content
The aqueous leaf extract of Allium cepaL. was evaluated for its phytochemistry, acute toxicity, efficacy and in vitro trypanocidal activity using standard procedures. A total of 12 wistar rats were grouped into 4 groups of 3 rats each and were intraperitioneally administered with graded doses of 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg bw of the extract. All groups of wistar rats were observed for 24 hours for sign of toxicity and mortality. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of the aqueous leaf extract revealed the presence of alkaloids,flavonoids, anthraquinones, steroids, saponins, reducing sugars, monosacharides, glycosides, tannins and ketones, while phlabotannins was absent. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the plant extract was determined as 600 mg/kg. Clinical signs exhibited in the treated wistar rats were dose dependent. The in vitro trypanocidal efficacy of the extract of A. cepa on Trypanosoma brucei showed lethality at 800 mg/ml.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
- Alli, A. A.,and Gower Jr, W. R. (2010). Molecular approaches to examine the phosphorylation state of the C type natriuretic peptide receptor. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 110(4), 985-994.
- Bora, K., and Sharma, A. (2009). Phytoconstituents and therapeutic potential of Allium cepa Linn.-A Review. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 3(5), 170.
- Bukachi, S. A., Wandibba, S., and Nyamongo, I. K. (2017). The socio-economic burden of human African trypanosomiasis and the coping strategies of households in the South Western Kenya foci. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11(10), e0006002.
- Benmalek, Y.; Yahia, O.A.; Belkebir, A.; Fardeau, M.L. (2013). Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties. Bioengineered (2013), 4, 244–248.
- Demers, G., Griffin, G., De Vroey, G., Haywood, J. R., Zurlo, J., and Bédard, M. (2006). Harmonization of animal care and use guidance. Science, 312 (5774), 700-701.
- Elberry, A. A., Mufti, S., Al-Maghrabi, J., Abdel Sattar, E., Ghareib, S. A., Mosli, H. A., and Gabr, S. A. (2014). Immunomodulatory effect of red onion (Allium cepa Linn) scale extract on experimentally induced atypical prostatic hyperplasia in Wistar rats. Mediators of Inflammation, 2014.
- Fenwick, G. R., Hanley, A. B., and Whitaker, J. R. (1985). The genus Allium—part 3. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 23(1), 1-73.
- Freiburghaus, F., Kaminsky, R., Nkunya, M. H. H., and Brun, R. (1996). Evaluation of African medicinal plants for their in vitro trypanocidal activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 55(1), 1-11.
- Gibson, W., Mehlitz, D., Lanham, S., and Godfrey, D. (1978). The identification of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in Liberian pigs and dogs by isoenzymes and by resistance to human plasma. Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie, 29(3), 335-345.
- Griffin, L. (1983). Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma congolense in mice. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 93(3), 489-492.
- Hoet, S., Opperdoes, F., Brun, R., and Quetin-Leclercq, J. (2004). Natural products active against African trypanosomes: a step towards new drugs. Natural Product Reports, 21(3), 353-364.
- Igbokwe, I., and Anosa, V. (1989). Response to anaemia in experimental Trypanosoma vivax infection of sheep. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 100(2), 111-118.
- Isaac, C., Ohiolei, J., Ebhodaghe, F., Igbinosa, I., and Eze, A. (2017). Animal African Trypanosomiasis in Nigeria: a long way from elimination/eradication. Acta Tropica, 176, 323-331.
- Jennings, F., Urquhart, G., Murray, P., and Miller, B. (1983). Treatment with suramin and 2-substituted 5-nitroimidazoles of chronic murine Trypanosoma brucei infections with central nervous system involvement. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 77(5), 693-698.
- Kahrizi, D., Molsaghi, M., Faramarzi, A., Yari, K., Kazemi, E., Farhadzadeh, A. M., ... & Yousofvand, N. (2012). Medicinal plants in holy Quran. American Journal of Scientific Research, 42(42), 62-71.
- Kojima, T., Tanaka, T., Mori, H., Kato, Y., and Nakamura, M. (1993). Acute and subacute toxicity tests of onion coat, natural colorant extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.), in (C57BL/6× C3H) F1 mice. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A Current Issues, 38(1), 89-101.
- Krinsky, W. L. (2019). Tsetse flies (glossinidae) Medical and Veterinary Entomology (pp. 369-382): Elsevier.
- Li, G., Ma, X., Deng, L., Zhao, X., Wei, Y., Gao, Z., ... & Sun, C. (2015). Fresh garlic extract enhances the antimicrobial activities of antibiotics on resistant strains in vitro. Jundishapur journal of microbiology, 8(5). doi: 10.5812/jjm.14814
- Mbaya, A., Aliyu, M., Nwosu, C., Taiwo, V., and Ibrahim, U. (2009). Effects of melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan®) and diminazene aceturate (Berenil®) on the pathology of experimental Trypanosoma brucei infection in red fronted gazelles (Gazella rufifrons). Veterinary Parasitology, 163(1-2), 140-143.
- Randle, W., and Lancaster, J. (2002). 14 sulphur compounds in alliums in relation to flavour quality. Allium Crop Science., 329.
- Sofowora, A. (1996). Research on medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 2(3), 365-372.
- Soulsby, E. (1982). Helminths. Arthropods and Protozoa of domesticated animals, 291.
- Trease, G. E., & Evans, W. C. (1987). A text book of Pharmacognosy. Tindal, Oxford: ELSB/Bailliere.
- Yusuf, O., Oseni, B., Olayanju, A., Hassan, M., Ademosun, A., and Akele, R. (2013). Acute and chronic effects of Trypanosoma brucei brucei experimental infection on bone marrow and peripheral blood cells in Wistar rats. Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences (SJAMS), 1(6), 1040-1036.