Main Article Content


Tick infestation is considered a major problem because ticks cause widespread nuisance and losses and vectors of disease-causing agents, resulting in economic losses in livestock production. The use of chemical agents is the main stay in tick-control though current research into viable plant extracts as alternatives are on the increase. This study evaluated the larvicidal effect of crude methanolic extract of Jatropha curcas seed oil extract on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratusticks. Various concentrations of 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/ml were prepared from a stock (100 mg/ml) solution of the sample; control using 1% tween 80 and standard acaricide; Amitraz (positive control) were used. The mortalities were observed at time intervals of 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 hours. The experiment was performed in triplicate. The extract had an LC50 and LC90 of 2.88mg/ml and 6.76mg/ml respectively after 48h. Carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, saponins, tannins, steroids, terpenes, alkaloids and flavonoids were detected as phytoconstituents, and the extract exhibited significant mean percentage mortality from the control across all the concentrations after 24h. The result confirms that J. curcas is a good alternative to be used as a larvicidal agent in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus.


Acaricidal; Jatrophacurcas; larvae; Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus

Article Details

How to Cite
Ijoh, B. B., Luka , J., Gimba, F. I., George, B. D. J., Chiezey, N., Suleiman, M. M., Dandam, P. K., Inegbenosun, C. U., & Muhammad, S. T. (2023). In vitro Acaricidal Effect of Jatropha curcas Methanol Extract on ‎Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus larvae. Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 20(4), 15-19.


  1. Abdulhamid, A., Fakai, I. M., Sani, I., Warra, A. A., Bello, F. ‎and Nuhu, B. G. (2013). Extraction, physicochemical ‎characterization and phytochemical screening of ‎Jatropha curcas L. seed oil. Journal of Natural ‎Products and Plant Resources, 3 (5): 26-30.‎
  2. Adebowale, K. O. and Adedire, C. O. (2006). Chemical ‎composition and insecticidal properties of the ‎underutilized Jatropha curcas seed oil. African ‎Journal of Biotechnology, 5 (10): 901-906.‎
  3. Dimri, M. and Sharma, C. (2004). Effects of sarcoptic mange ‎and its control with oil of Cedrus deodara, Pongamia ‎glabra, Jatropha curcas and benzyl benzoate, both ‎with and without ascorbic acid on growing sheep: ‎epidemiology; assessment of clinical, haematological, ‎cell-mediated humoral immune responses and ‎pathology. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A, ‎‎51: 71–78.‎
  4. Ekpendu, T.O., Anyogo, P., Ityough, D. and Akpa, F. (2000). ‎Nigerian ethnomedicine and medicinal plant flora: ‎The Benue experience - Part 3, Nigerian Journal of ‎Natural Products and Medicine 04: 13-22.‎
  5. Fatnassi, B., Khouja, M. L. and El Ferchichi, O. H. (2014). ‎Larvicidal efficacy of Jatrophacurcas L. ‎‎(Euphorbiaceae) leaf and seed aqueous extract ‎against Culex pipiens L. African Journal of ‎Biotechnology, 13(26): 2641-2647.‎
  6. Finney, D. J. (1971). Probit analysis. Cambridge Univ. Press, ‎Cambridge, 333 pp.‎
  7. George, B. D. J., Ogbogu, V. C., Adekeye, J. O., Kwaga, J. P. K. ‎and Ajanusi, O. J. (2001). Sequential histopathology ‎of the skin of two breeds of sheep to the bites of ‎Amblyomma variegatum. Nigerian Journal of ‎Parasitology, 22: 149-156.‎
  8. Ghosh, S., Azhahianambi, P. and Yadav, M. P. (2007). ‎Upcoming and future strategies of tick control: a ‎review. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, 44: 79-89.‎
  9. Goel, G., Makkar, H. P. S., Francis, G. and Becker, K. (2007). ‎Phorbol esters: Structure, biological activity, biological ‎activity and toxicity in animals. International Journal ‎of Toxicology, 26: 279-288. ‎
  10. Gubitz, G. M., Mittelbach, M. and Trabi M. (1999). ‎Exploitation of the tropical oil seed plant Jatropha ‎curcas Linn. Bioresource Technology, 67: 73-82.‎
  11. Haas, W. and Mittelbach, M. (2000). Detoxification ‎experiments with seed oil from Jatropha curcas L. ‎Industrial Crops and Products, 12:111-118.‎
  12. Igbinosa, O. O., Igbinosa E. O., Aiyegoro, O. A. (2009). ‎Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening ‎of stem bark extracts from Jatropha curcas (Linn). ‎African Journal Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 3(2): ‎‎58-62.‎
  13. Luqman, T. O., Mohammed, A., Ulrike, S. and Jabbar, S. A. ‎‎(2007). A survey of ticks (Acari:Ixodidae) on cattle, ‎sheep and goats in the Dohuk Governorate, Iraq. ‎ParasitologyResearch, 101(2): 179–181.‎
  14. Mann, A. (2012). Phytochemical constituents and ‎antimicrobial and grain protectant activities of clove ‎basil (Ocimumgratissimum L.) grown in Nigeria. ‎International Journal of Plant Research, 2(1): 51-58.‎
  15. Mattioli, R. C. and Cassama, M. (1995). Comparison of ‎Lifecycle in female ticks collected on N’dama and ‎Zebu cattle. Tropical Animal Health and Production, ‎‎27: 150-154.‎
  16. Mbao, J., Clever, K. and Jerekias G. (2022). Quantification of ‎Phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate in Jatropha seed oil ‎and cake at different stages of fruit maturity. ‎International Journal of Environmental Studies, ‎‎79(1):88-97.‎
  17. Moyo, B, Masika, P. J. and Muchenje, V. (2012). ‎Antimicrobial activities of Moringa oleifera Lam ‎extract. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11: 34-42.‎
  18. Muhammad, K. O., Nabila, I., Abdulaziz, A., Alam, Z. K., ‎Itabajara, V. J., Tetsuya, T. and Abid, A. (2022). ‎Acaricide resistance in ticks: diagnosis, ‎mechanization and mitigation. Front Cell Infect ‎Microbiol, 12: 941831 ‎doi:10.3389/fcimb.2022.941831‎
  19. Mtshali, M.S., De Waal, D. T. and Mbati, P. A. A. (2004). Sero-‎epidemiological survey of blood parasites in cattle in ‎the northeastern Free State, South ‎Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary ‎Research, (71): 67–75.‎
  20. Natala, A. J., Agyei, A. D. and Awumbila, B. (2002). ‎Oviposition performance of adult ‎Amblyommavariegatum (Fabr. 1794) female ticks ‎under different relative humidity conditions. Bulletin ‎of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 50: 252-‎‎258.‎
  21. Rajput, Z. I., Hu, S., Chen, W., Arijo, A. G. and Xiao, C. (2006); ‎Review: Importance of ticks and their chemical and ‎immunological control in livestock. Journal of ‎Zhejiang University Science B, 7(11): 912-921.‎
  22. Rechav, Y. and Hay, L. (1992). The effects of nutritional ‎status of rabbits and sheep on their resistance to the ‎ticks Rhipicephalus evertsievertsi and R. ‎appendiculatus. Experimental and Applied ‎Acarology, 15: 171–179.‎
  23. Redfren, R. E., Kelly, T. J., Borkovec, A. B. and Hayes, D. K. ‎‎(1982). Ecdysteroidtiters and moulting abberations in ‎last stages Oncopeltus nymphs treated with growth ‎regulators. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, ‎‎18: 351-356.‎
  24. Rug, M. and Ruppel, A. (2000). Toxic activities of the plant ‎Jatropha curcas against intermediate snail hosts and ‎larvae of Schistosomes. Tropical Medical ‎International Health, 5: 423-430.‎
  25. Schimdt, G. D. and Roberts, L. S. (1989). Foundation of ‎Parasitology: Fourth Edition. St. Louis: Times Mirror/ ‎Mosby College Publishing.‎
  26. Sonenshine, D. E. (1991). Biology of Ticks, New York: Oxford ‎University Press.‎
  27. Trease, G. E. and Evans, W. C. (2002). Pharmacognosy. 15th ‎Edn. Saunders, pp. 214-393.‎