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Intestinal and urinary helminth infections affect up to a quarter of the world’s population, with the potential of causing significant public health and economic burden. The occurrence of helminth parasites in stool and urine of residents, and water and soil samples of some communities around Lake Alau, Maiduguri, Nigeria was determined using direct microscopy, floatation and sedimentation techniques. A total of 349 (34.7%) residents were infected out of the 1,005 examined, consisting of 220 (21.9%) males and 129 (12.8%) females, with significant (p<0.05) variation based on gender. Similarly, the infection was significantly (p<0.05) higher among young individuals 197(19.6%) than the adults 152(15.1%). Among the ten communities (Logajiri, Melari, Dumbari, AlauLimanti, Awa Isari, Limanti, Gaskeri, Attakeri, Chellomi and Gomari Karekǝri) examined, the infection was significantly (p<0.05) highest at Gomari Karekǝri 57 (5.7%) and Alau Limanti 55(5.5%) and least at Gaskeri 19 (1.9%) and Chellomari 20 (2.0%). Intestinal parasites encountered consist of Ascaris lumbricoides 234 (23.3%), Trichuris trichiura 24 (2.4%), Strongyloides stercoralis 10 (1.0%), Schistosoma mansoni 8 (0.8%), and Taenia species 1 (0.1%) (p<0.05). Schistosoma haematobium 72 (7.2%) was the only helminth parasite recovered from urine samples examined. Environmental (water and soil) contamination with parasite stages was predominantly with pre-parasitic nematode larvae 50 (25%), eggs of Strongyloides stercoralis 50 (25%), Ascaris lumbricoides 30 (15%), Strongyle spp. 30 (15%) and cysts of protozoans; Entamoeba histolytica 30 (15%) and Giardia intestinalis 10 (5%). The results suggest that infection with intestinal and urinary parasites is common among the residents of the study area and that socio-cultural habits may favour the survival and transmission of these parasites in the area.
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