Main Article Content
A study was conducted to assess the growth performance of broiler chickens fed Moringa oleifera leaf (MOL) feed supplement and challenged with a very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV). Two hundred and forty day-old Ross 308 hybrid broiler chicks were randomly assigned into groups A, B, C and D of 60 chicks each and were raised in deep litter housing. Broiler starter (BS) and broiler finisher (BF) mash were formulated each with 5% MOL included as part of the feed ingredient for broilers in groups A and B while BS and BF for broilers in groups C and D were formulated without MOL. Broiler chickens in groups A, B and C were challenged at 35 days of age with 0.05 ml of a live vvIBDV, while those in group D served as control. Daily feed intake (DFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and average body weight gain (ABWG) was used to assess the growth performance. At 42 and 49 days of age, significant difference was observed in the feed intake of broilers in groups A, B and C when compared with group D (p = 0.0001). At 49 days of age, broilers in group A and D significantly (p = 0.0001) added more weight than those in groups B and C respectively. Broilers in group B had a significantly (p = 0.0006) lower FCR than those in group A, C and D at 28, 35 and 42 days of age. Despite the challenge with vvIBDV, MOL inclusion in the diet of broiler chickens resulted in reduced DFI, good FCR, increased ABWG and final body weight and carcass weight.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
- failures in chicken in Nigeria. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 18:123-125.
- Agbede, J. O. and Aletor, V. A (2003). Evaluation of fish meal replaced with leaf protein concentrate from Glyricidia in diets for broiler chicks: Effect on performance, muscle growth, haematology and serum metabolites. Int. J. Poult. Sci., (2): 242-250.
- Agbede, J.O. (2003). Equi-protein replacement of fishmeal with leucaena leaf protein concentrate: An assessment of performance characteristics and muscle development in the chicken. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 2:421-426.
- Anjorin, T.B., Ikokoh, P. and Okolo, S. (2010). Mineral composition of Moringa leaves, pods and seeds from two regions in Abuja, Nigeria. Int. J. Agric. Biol, 12: 431 – 434.
- Anwar, F., Latif, S., Ashraf, M. and Gilani, A. H. (2007). Moringa oleifera: A food plant with multiple medicinal uses.Phytother. Res, 21: 17-25.
- Aregheore, E. M. (2001). Nutritive value and utilization of three grass species by crossbreed. J. Anim. Sci., 14: 1389-1393.
- Aregheore, E. M. (2002). Intake and digestibility of Moringa oleifera-batiki grass mixtures by growing goats.Small Rumin. Res, 46: 23–28.
- Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (1990). Official Methods of Analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemists,Washington, D.C., USA. 15th Edition, pp. 807-928.
- Ayssiwede, S. B., Zanmenou, J. C., Issa, Y., Hane, M. B., Dieng, A., Chrysostome, C. A. A. M., Houinato, M. R., Hornick, J. L. and Missohou. A. (2011). Nutrient composition of some unconventional and local feed resources available in Senegal and recoverable in indigenous chickens or animal feeding. Pak J Nutr, 10: 707-717.
- Banjo, O. S. (2012). Growth and performance as affected by inclusion of Moringa oleifera leaf meal in broiler chicks diet. J. Biol. Agric. Healthcare, 2(9): 35-38.
- D’Mello, J. P. F., Acamovic, T. and Walker, A.G. (1987). Evaluation of leuceana leaf meal for broiler growth and pigmentation. J. Trop. Agric., 64: 33-35
- Dipeolu, M. A, Eruvbetine, D. and Williams, T. J. (1996). Indigenous chicken rearing under village conditions. Int. J. Anim. Sci., 11: 63-67.
- Ebenebe, C. I., Umegechi, C. O., Aniebo, A. O., Nweze, B. O. (2012). Comparison of haematological parameters and weight changes of broiler chicks fed different levels of Moringa oleifera diet. Int J. Agric. Biol., 1(1): 23-25.
- Essen, N. A., Ologhobo, A. D., Akpet, S.O., Ayuk, E. A. and Ibom, L. A. (2005). In vitro properties of phytates from two microbial origins. The Proceedings of the first Nigeria International Poultry Summit (NIPS) 20-25, February, 2005. Ota Ogun State, Nigeria, Pp. 109.
- Estrella, M. C. P., Mantaring, J. B. V. and David, G. Z. (2000). A double blind randomised controlled trial on the use of malunggay (Moringa oleifera) for augmentation of the volume of breast milk among non-nursing mothers of preterm infants. Philipp J. Pediatr, 49: 3–6.
- Etalem, T., Getachew, A., Mengistu, U. and Tadelle, D. (2013). Moringa oleifera leaf meal as an alternative protein feed ingredient in broiler ration. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 12(5): 289-297.
- Fahey, J. W. (2005). Moringa oleifera: A review of the medical evidence for its nutritional, therapeutic and prophylactic properties. Trees for Life Journal, 1:5. http://www.TFLJournal.org/article.php/20051201124931586.
- Fahey, J.W., Zakmann, A.T. and Talalay, P. (2001). The chemical diversity and distribution of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates among plants. Corrigendum Phytochem., 59: 200-237.
- FASS. Guide for the care and use of agricultural animals in research and teaching (3rd Edn.). Federation of Animal Science Societies. 2010; p. 103–128.
- Freiberger, C. E., Vanderjagt, D. J., Pastuszyn, A., Glew, R. S., Mounkaila, G., Millson, M. and Glew, R. H. (1998). Nutrient content of the edible leaves of seven wild plants from Niger.Plant Food Hum. Nutr., 53: 57–69.
- Fuglie, L. J. (1999). The miracle tree: Moringa oleifera. In:Natural Nutrition for the Tropics. Church World Service, Dakkar, Senegal, pp. 68.
- Islam, M. R., Zierenberg, K., Eterradossi, N., Toquin, D., Rivallan, G. and Müller, H. (2001). Molecular and antigenic characterization of Bangladeshi isolates of infectious bursal disease virus demonstrate their similarities with recent European, Asian and African very virulent strains.J. Vet. Med., 48: 211–221.
- Kaijage, J. T., Sarwatt, S.V. and Mutayoba, S. K. (2003). Moringa oleifera leaf meal can improve quality characteristics and consumer preference of marketable eggs. Numerical Proceedings Papers. Retrived April 3, 2009 from: http://www.costech.or.tz.
- Kakengi, A. M. V., Shen, M. N., Sarwart, S. V. and Fujihara, T. (2003). Can Moringa oleifera be used as protein supplement to ruminant diet.Asian Austral J. Anim., 18(1): 42-47.
- Larry, E. N. (1993). Broiler feeding and management. Poultry Int., 32: 70-72.
- Lockett, C. T., Calvert, C. C. and Grivetti, L. E. (2000). Energy and micronutrient composition of dietary and medicinal wild plants consumed during drought. Study of rural Fulani, Northeastern Nigeria. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr., 51: 195–208.
- Lukert, P. D and Saif, Y. M. (1997). Infections bursal disease. In: Diseases of Poultry. 10th Edn. Calnek B. W., Barnes, H. J., Beard C.W., McDaugald, L. R., Saif, Y. M (Eds). Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 721 – 738.
- Makkar, H. P. S. and Becker, K. (1997). Nutrient and anti quality factors on different morphological parts of the Moringa tree. J. Agric. Sci.128: 311-322.
- Makkar, H. P. S. and Becker, K. (1999). Plant toxins and detoxification methods to improve feed quality of tropical seeds – review. Asian Aust. J. Anim., 12: 467–480.
- Maroufyan, E., Kasim, A., Hashemi, S. R., Loh, T. C. and Bejo, M. H. (2010). Response of performance and differential leukocyte counts to methionine and threonine supplementation on broiler chickens challenged with infectious bursal disease in tropical condition.Asian J. Biol. Sci, 3(2): 68-76.
- Min, B., Nam, K. C., Cordray, J. and Ahn, D. U. (2008). Endogenous factors affecting oxidative stability of beef loin, pork loin, and chicken breast and thigh meats. J. Food Sci.,73(6), 439-446.
- Moreeng, A. (2008). Moringa - Immune Booster or Snake Oil? The Botswana Gazette Newspaper, Tuesday, 12 August 2008.
- Morimitsu, Y., Hayashi, K., Nakagama, Y., Horio, F., Uchida, K. and Osawa, T. (2000). Antiplatelet and anticancer isothiocyanates in Japanese horseradish, wasabi. Biofactors,13: 271–276.
- Mothershaw, A. S., Gaffer, T., Kadim, I., Guizani, N., Al-Amri, I., Mahgoub, O. and Al-Bahry, S. (2009). Quality characteristics of broiler chicken meat on salt at different temperatures.Int. J. Food Prop., 12(3): 681-690.
- Niki, E. (1996). Free radical- induced oxidative damage and nutritional oxidants. Proceedings of 2nd World Health Organisation Symposium on Health issues for 21st Century, pp. 105-108.
- Nworgu, F. C., Egbunike, G. N and Ogundola, F. I. (2000). Performance and nitrogen utilization of broiler chicks fed full fat extruded soybean meal and full fat soybean. Trop. Anim. Prod. Invest. J., 3: 47-54.
- Office International des Epizootics (OIE) (2004). Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. 5th Edition, Chapter 2-7-1, Part 2, Section 2-7.
- Okoye, J. O. A. (1983). The effect of late infectious bursal disease on the severity of naturally occurring Eimeria necatrix infection in chickens. Bull Anim. Health Prod. Afr., 31: 263-267.
- Ologhobo,A. D., Adejumo, I.O. and Akangbe,E. I. (2014).Comparison effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal and oxytetracycline on haematology and serum biochemical profile of broiler finishers.Int J Blood Res. Rev.,2(1): 1 – 8.
- Olugbemi, T. S., Mutayoba, S. K. and Lekule, F. P. (2010a). Evaluation of Moringa oleifera leaf meal inclusion in cassava chip based diets fed to laying birds. Livest. Res. Rural Dev.,22(6): 118-120.
- Olugbemi, T. S., Mutayoba, S. K. and Lekule, F. P. (2010b). Effect of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) inclusion in cassava based diets fed to broiler chickens. Int. J. Poult. Sci.,9(4): 363-367.
- Onibi, G. E., Folorunso, O. R. and Elumelu, C. (2008). Assessment of partial Equi-Protein replacement of soya bean meal with cassava and leucaena leaf meals in the diets of broiler chicken finishers. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 7: 408-413.
- Onu, P. N. and Aniebo, A. O. (2011). Influence of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on the performance and blood chemistry of starter broilers. Int. J. Food, Agri. Vet. Sci.,1(1): 38-44.
- Portugaliza, H. P. and Fernandez, JR T. J. (2012). Growth performance of cobb broilers given varying concentrations of malunggay (Moringa oleifera lam.) aqueous leaf extract. Online j. anim. feed res.,2(6): 465-469.
- Preston, L. H. and William, W. M. (1973). Eviscerated yield, component parts and meat, skin bone ratios in chicken broiler. Poult. Sci. J, 52: 718-722.
- Ramachandran, C., Peter, K. V. and Gopalakrishnan, P. K. (1980). Drumstick (Moringa oleifera): a multipurpose Indian vegetable. Econ. Bot., 34: 276–283.
- Ratshilivha, N., Awouafack, M. D., du Toit, E. S. and Eloff, J. N. (2014). The variation in antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of acetone leaf extracts of 12 Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) trees enables the selection of trees with additional uses. S. Afri. J. Bot., 92: 59–64.
- Safa, M. A. and El Tazi. (2014). Effect of feeding different levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on the performance and carcass quality of broiler chicks. Int. J. Sci. Res., 3(5): 147-151.
- Sarwatt, S. V., Milangha, M. S., Lekule, F.P. and Madalla, N. (2004). Moringa oleifera and cotton seed cake as supplements for small holder dairy cow fed napier grass. Livestock Res Rural Dev., 16: 38 - 44.
- Shane, S. (1997). Infectious bursal disease In: Poultry Health and Management. 4th Edn. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, UK, Pp. 125-126.
- Siddhuraju, P. and Becker, K. (2003). Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of total phenolic constituents from three different agro-climatic origins of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.). J. Agr. Food Chem., 15(8): 2144-2155.
- Singh, K. K. and Kumar, K. (1999). Ethnotherapeutics of some medicinal plants used as antipyretic agent among the tribals of India. J. Econ. Tax. Bot.,23: 135–141.
- Smith, A. J. (2001). Poultry CTA Tropical Agriculturist Series. Macmilan London, Pp. 1-7.
- Sofowora, A. (1993). Medicinal Plant and Traditional Medicine in Africa; Spectrum Books Limited Ibadan. pp 1-12, 101-108.
- Surai, P. F., Speake, B. K. and Sparks, N. H. C (2001). Carotenoids in avian nutrition and embryonic development 1. Absorption, availability and levels in plasma and egg yolk. Poult. Sci. J, 38: 1-27.
- Talpin, D. E., D’Mello, J. P. F. and Philips, P. (1981). Evaluation of leucaena leaf meal from Malawi as a source of xanthophylls for the laying hen. Trop. Sci., 23: 217-226.
- Tsukamoto, K., Tanimura, N., Mase, M. and Imai, K. (1995). Comparison of virus replication efficiency in lymphoid tissues among three infectious bursal disease virus strains. Avian Dis., 39(4): 844-852.
- van den Berg, T. P. (2000). Acute infectious bursal disease in poultry: a review. Avian Pathol.,29: 175–194.
- Yang, R. Y., Chang, L. C., Hsu, J. C., Brian, B. C., Manue, W., Palada, C., Chadha, M. L. and Levasseur, V. (2006). Nutritional and Functional Properties of Moringa oleifera leaves from Germplasm to Plant to Food to Health. In: Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa, Accra, Ghana, Nov,2006; 16-18.