Main Article Content


This study was carried out to document the pelvic and testicular biometric characteristics of Sahel goats. Record of body weight, body condition score, height at withers, scrotal length, scrotal circumference and external pelvic circumference were obtained from 400 male and 600 female Sahel goats. All the goats were approximately 1.5 years old and weighing 14 to 18 kg, with body condition score of 3 or 4 (scale of 1-5). The mean bodyweight of Sahel bucks was 15.12 ± 1.10 kg while that of Sahel does was 13.22 ± 1.12 kg, height at withers in bucks and does were 52.22 ± 1.20 cm, and 48.13 ± 1.23 cm respectively. The scrotal length and circumference in Sahel bucks were 11.39 ± 1.12 cm and 17.95 ± 1.21 cm respectively. The external pelvic circumference in Sahel does was 55.13 ± 1.16 cm. There was significant (P<0.05) positive correlation between the body weight and body condition score in bucks (r=0.52) and in does (r=0.42). It was observed that there was weak but positive correlation between the body weight and height at withers (r=0.34), in bucks and in does (r=0.25; P <0.5). A low but significant positive correlation was found between the body weight and scrotal circumference r=0.28, (P<0.05) in bucks. There was a highsignificant positive correlation between the scrotal length and scrotal circumference r=0.66, (P <0.05).  The external pelvic circumference in Sahel does was also significantly positively correlated with body weight r=0.40, (P<0.05) and with the body condition score r= 0.33, (P<0.05). In conclusion, the body weight, body condition score, height at withers, scrotal length, scrotal circumference and external pelvic circumference of Sahel goats in Maiduguri were successfully determined, these parameters studied might serve as a bases for determining the breeding soundness of Sahel goats.


Biometry, External Pelvic, Post pubertal, Sahel goat, Testicular

Article Details

How to Cite
Abba, A., Mustapha, A. R., Mustapha, B. U., Iliyasu, D., Peter, I. D., Asuku, S. O., Stephen, J., & Waziri, M. A. (2021). Pelvic and Testicular Biometry of Sahel Goats in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 18(1), 1-5. Retrieved from


  1. Abba, Y and Igbokwe, I.O. (2015). Testicular and related ‎size evaluations in Nigerian Sahel Goats with ‎optimal epididymal sperm. Veterinary Medicine ‎International, 1-15.‎
  2. Adedeji, O.S and Gbadamosi, A.J. (1999). Relationship of ‎scrotal circumference, age, body weight and the ‎right and left scrotal length in Red Sokoto (Maradi) ‎goat. Proceeding of 26th Annual Nigerian Society ‎of Animal Production (NSAP) Conference 21-25 ‎March 1999: Ilorin, Nigeria. Pp 305-309.‎
  3. Adeyinka, I.A and Mohammed, I. D. (2006). Relationship ‎of live weight and linear body measurement in two ‎breeds of goats of Northern Nigeria. Journal of ‎Animal and Veterinary Advances, 5(11): 891-893.‎
  4. Ahmed, A., Babiker, A., Gubartallal, A., Kamal, A. and ‎Bakhiet, O. (2005). Comparative Studies on ‎reproductive performance of Nubian and Saanen ‎bucks under the climatic conditions of Khartoum. ‎Journal Animal and Veterinary Advances. 4: 942-944.‎
  5. Ajani, S.O., Oyeyemi, M. O. and Olusoji, J. (2015). ‎Correlation between weight, age, scrotal ‎circumference and the testicular epididymal ‎parameters of red Sokoto buck. Journal of ‎Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, 7 (5): ‎‎159-163. ‎
  6. Alemayehu, T., Tikabo, G. and Gangwar, S.K. (2010). ‎Application of linear body measurement for ‎predicting body weight of Abergelle Goat breed in ‎Tigray region Northern Ethiopia. Global Journal of ‎Biological Science, 1(2):314-319.‎
  7. Amare, E.G. and Kefelegn, W. (2017). Body weight and ‎scrotal-testicular biometry in 3 indigenous breed of ‎bucks in arid and semi-arid agro-ecologies, ‎Ethiopia. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 4: 1-9.‎
  8. Amin, J.D., Waziri, M.A. and Ribadu, A. Y. (Eds) (2016). ‎Dentition and ageing. In: Manual of Animal ‎Restraint. Gabdel Integrated Service Publisher. 87-‎‎89.‎
  9. Babale, D.M., Abaya, U.H. and Gworgwor, Z. (2018). ‎Relationship between liveweights, linear body ‎measurements and cost prices of small ruminants ‎sold in and around Mubi environs, Adamawa ‎state, Nigeria. Journal of Dairy, Veterinary and ‎Animal Research, 7 (6): 273‒277.‎
  10. Bukar, M. M., Amin, J.D., Sivachelvan, M.N. and Ribadu, ‎A.Y. (2006). Postnatal histological development of ‎the ovaries and uterus and the attainment of ‎puberty in female kid goats Small Ruminant ‎Research,65 (3): 200-208.‎
  11. Bukar, M. M., Rosnina, Y., Wahid, H., Dhaliwal, G. K., ‎Mohammed, A.G.K. and Ariff, O. M. (2012). ‎Oestrus response and follicular development in ‎Boer Does synchronized with flugestone acetate ‎and PGFα or their combination with eCG or FSH. ‎Tropical Animal Health Production, 44: 1505-‎‎1511.‎
  12. Burkholder, W.J. (2000).Condition scores in clinical ‎assessment of the provision of optimal nutrition, ‎American Journal of Veterinary Medicine ‎Association, 2 (17): 650-665.‎
  13. Dehouegnon, J. A., Tatiana, D. D. and Nazan, K. ‎‎(2017).Recent Developments in Goat Farming ‎and Perspectives for a Sustainable Production in ‎Western Africa International Journal of ‎Environment, Agriculture and ‎Biotechnology(IJEAB) 2,4 2047-205.‎
  14. Dereje, T.1., Berhanu, B. and Aynalem, H. (2013). Linear ‎Body Measurements as Predictor of Body Weight ‎in Hararghe Highland Goats under Farmers ‎Environment: Ethiopia. Global Veterinarian, 11 ‎‎(5): 649-656.‎
  15. Ebegbulem, V.N., Ibe, S.N., Ozung, P.O. and Ubua, J.A. ‎‎(2011). Morphometric trait characteristics of West ‎African Dwarf goats in Abia state, South East ‎Nigeria. Continental Journal of Agricultural ‎Science, 5 (2):1-6.‎
  16. FAOSTAT (2008). Food and Agricultural Organization of ‎the United Nations Statistics Division. FAO ‎Statistic Retrieved. ‎
  17. Hifzan, R.M., Ismail, I. and Yaakub, H. (2015). Growth ‎Pattern for Body Weight, Height at Withers and ‎Body Length of Kalahari Red Goats. Pakistan ‎Journal of Biological Sciences, 18: 200-203.‎
  18. Jamie, L.S.and Clifford, F.S. (2014). Puberty and Estrus in ‎Goats MSD and the MSD Veterinary Manual. ‎Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary ‎Medicine.‎
  19. Josue, C.V., Jennifer, M., Woodward, G., Curtis, P.V.T., Clet, ‎W.M. and Max, F.R. (2018). Prediction of live ‎weight of rural African goats using body ‎measurement. Livestock Research for Rural ‎Development,30 (7): 60-68. ‎
  20. Kumbhar, U.B., Gulavane, S.U., Gaikwad, S.M., Lokhande, ‎D.U., Ingole, S.D.and Sachdeva, G. (2017). ‎Relationship ofUltrasonographic Testicular ‎Biometry with Body Weight, Scrotal ‎Circumference in Pre and Post Pubertal ‎Osmanabadi Bucks. International Journal of ‎Livestock Research. 7 (11) 206-208.‎
  21. Kwari, H.D. (2001). A morphological Study of the Ecotypes ‎of Sahel Goats in Borno State with special ‎reference to Sexual Dimorphism. Unpublished ‎PhD Thesis, Department of Veterinary Anatomy, ‎Faculty of Medicine, University of Maiduguri, ‎Borno State Nigeria.‎
  22. Memon, M.A., Mickelsen, W.D. and Goyal, H.O. ‎‎(2007).Examination of reproductive tract and ‎evaluation of potential breeding soundness in the ‎bucks. Theriogenology, 2(4): 26-47.‎
  23. Mohamed, G.H., Mohamed, S.E., Sayed, T. I. and Amal, ‎M.E. (2020). Seasonal changes in testicular ‎ultrasonogram pixel-intensity and their association ‎with Semen characteristics in rams. Asian Pacific ‎Journal of Reproduction. 9(1): 49-54.‎
  24. Morand, F., Boutonnet, J., Devendra, C., Dubeuf, J., ‎Haenlein, G.F.W., Mowlem, L.and Capote, J. ‎‎(2004). Strategy for goat farming in the 21st ‎century. Small Ruminant Reseach, 51; 175-184. ‎
  25. Muhammad, F., Khan, H.and Zubair, M. (2006). ‎Relationship of body weight with linear body ‎measurements in Goats. Journal of Animal and ‎Veterinary Advances, 5: (6) 452-455.‎
  26. Nongo, N.N. and Akinboade, O.A. (2013). Goat Weights ‎Obtained from Innovated and Two Other Scales ‎Prior to Experimental Trypanosome Infection. ‎Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 3 ‎‎(2), 2-5.‎
  27. Okpeku, M., Yakubu, A., Peters, S.O., Ozoje, M.O., Ikeobi, ‎C.O.N., Adebambo, O. A. and Imumorin, I.G. ‎‎(2011). Application of multivariate principal ‎component analysis to morphological ‎characterization of indigenous goats in Southern ‎Nigeria. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica. 98(2):101–‎‎109.‎
  28. Onakpa, A., Adeyinka, I. A. and Mohammed, I.D. (2010). ‎Relationship of live weight and linear body ‎measurement in two breeds of goats of Northern ‎Nigeria. Journal of Animal and Veterinary ‎Advances, 5(11): 891-893.‎
  29. Oyeyemi, M.O., Leigh, O. O. and Fakayode, A. (2011). ‎Spermiogram and Changes in Body Parameters of ‎West African Dwarf Bucks Fed with Dussa-poultry. ‎Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, ‎‎5:891-893. ‎
  30. Raji, A.O., Igwebuike, J.U and Aliyu, J. (2008). Testicular ‎biometry and its relationship with body weight of ‎indigenous goats in a semiarid region of Nigeria. ‎Journal of Agriculture Biological Science, 3:35-8.‎
  31. Salako, A.E. (2004). Maturity rate of some morphometric ‎traits in the West African Dwarf Sheep of Nigeria. ‎Tropical Journal of Animal Science, 7(1): 51-55.‎
  32. Sameh, S., Farida, A.B., Zoubir, B., Houria, O.and Amel, D. ‎‎(2019). Testicular Biometry and its Relationship ‎with Age and Body Weight of Indigenous Bucks ‎‎(Algeria). Advances in Animal and Veterinary ‎Sciences 7 (10) 882.‎
  33. Samuel, O.K.and Salako, A. (2008). Body measurement ‎characteristics of the West African Dwarf (WAD) ‎Goat in deciduous forest zone of Southwestern ‎Nigeria. African. Journal of Biotechnology,7(14): ‎‎2521-2526.‎
  34. Shamsuddin, M., Amiri, Y. and Bhuiyan, M.M.U. (2000). ‎Characteristics of buck semen with regard to ‎ejaculate numbers, collection intervals, dilution ‎and preservation periods. Reproduction in ‎Domestic Animals, 35:53-57.‎
  35. Theodros, T. (2002). Predicting live weight using body ‎measurements in Afar goats in north eastern ‎Ethiopia. Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science ‎‎(MEJS), 6 (2): 18-32.‎
  36. Turkgeldi, I., Arik, I.Z., Yurtman, M. O. and Ozduven, M. L. ‎‎(1997). Relations between body eight and ‎condition score Akdeniz University. Journal of ‎Agriculture Faculty of Animal Science ‎Department, 10: 129-135.‎
  37. USDA, (2019). Goat dentition. Cooperative Extension. ‎United State Department of Agriculture, National ‎institute of food and Agriculture. ‎‎