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Tuberculosis (TB) is recognized as the most important threat to human and animal health causing morbidity, mortality, and economic losses. A study was conducted to assess the epidemiology and zoonotic implications of TB in two states of northeastern Nigeria, using abattoir surveillance, culture, and molecular typing methods. The human sputum of in-patients from selected hospitals within the study areas was also collected, cultured, and subjected to molecular typing. Out of the 250 human sputa collected, 74 (29.6%) were positive for culture and 40(16%) were positive on Bioline® analysis. Also, of the 200 tissues collected, 62(32.5%) were AFB positive and 25(12.5%) were positive on culture and 18(9.0%) were positive on Bioline® analysis. All positive isolates on Bioline® analyses were further subjected to Genotype® MBTC analysis. A total of (n = 58) isolates; sputum (n=40) and tissue (n=18), identified as MBTC were further subjected to Genotype MBTC® Hain assay PCR analysis. in order to differentiate them into their various species. Of the MBTC isolates from the tissues, 8(4.0%) were found to be Mycobacterium bovis, 5(2.5%) were Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the remaining 5(2.5%) were unidentified using the standard banding patterns. The 40 MBTC from sputum showed 30 (75%) as Mycobacterium tuberculosis 6(15%) were Mycobacterium bovis, 3(7.5%) were Mycobacterium africanum and 1(0.4%) was unidentified using the standard banding patterns. In conclusion, the study revealed the public health importance of bTB in the study area. There is also the need for public health awareness programs on the zoonotic nature of bTB among the abattoir workers and the herdsmen.
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