Main Article Content


Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a zoonotic enteric pathogen of public health significance worldwide. A cross-sectional study was carried out during which 384 faecal samples of household-reared small ruminants and water used in the various houses where the animals are reared were collected. The samples were enriched on tryptone soya broth and cultured on EMB and CT-SMAC to isolate E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 respectively; subjected to conventional biochemical tests and E. coliO157:H7 was confirmed using Wellcolex latex agglutination test kit. E. coli O157:H7 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test and multiplex PCR was carried out to detect the presence of virulence genes stx1, stx2, eaeA and hlyA. The results of the isolation showed isolation rate of E. coli O157:H7 of 4.69% (9/192), 0.52% (1/192) which were obtained from faeces and water samples respectively. The results of the characterisation showed that one of the E. coli O157:H7 isolated harboured the eaeA and hlyA genes but was negative for stx1 and stx2 genes. The highest number of isolates showed resistance to erythromycin (90.9%) while the least was to gentamicin (6.3%). About 97.7% (43/44) of the isolates had multiple antibiotic resistance index greater than 0.2. In conclusion, household-reared small ruminants in the study area were found to be reservoirs of E. coli O157:H7 and humans living within these households are at risk of infection. The multiple antibioticresistance recorded in this study suggests widespread use of antimicrobial drugs in the study area.


Escherichia coli O157:H7;Household-reared small ruminants; Latex agglutination; Multiplex PCR; Antimicrobial sensitivity

Article Details

How to Cite
Yakubu, R. O., Lawan, M. K., Kwaga, J. K. P., & Kabir, J. (2020). Isolation, Molecular Detection and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of ‎Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Household - reared Small Ruminants in Zaria ‎Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 17(4), 16-23. Retrieved from


  1. Abdissa, R., Haile, W., Fite, A. T., Beyi, A. F., Getahun, E., ‎Agga, G. E., Edao, B. M., Tadesse, ‎ F., Korsa, M. ‎G., Beyene, T., Beyene, T. J., De Zutter, L., Cox, E. ‎and Goddeeris B. M. (2017). Prevalence of ‎Escherichia coli O157:H7 in beef cattle at ‎slaughter and beef carcasses at retail shops in ‎Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis, 17:277‎
  2. Aboh, A. E., Giwa, J. F. and Giwa, A. (2015). ‎Microbiological assessment of well waters in ‎Samaru, Zaria, Kaduna, State, Nigeria. Ann. Afr. ‎Med., 14 (10):32-3‎
  3. Abreham, S., Teklu, A., Cox, E. and Tessema, T. S. (2019). ‎Escherichia coli O157:H7: Distribution, molecular ‎characterization, antimicrobial resistance patterns ‎and source of contamination of sheep and goat ‎carcasses at an export abattoir, Mojdo, Ethiopia. ‎BMC Microbiol., 19:215. https//‎12866-0199-1590-8‎
  4. Adefarakan, T. A., Oluduro, A. O., David, O. M., Ajayi, A. ‎O., Ariyo, A. B. and Fashina, C. D. ‎ ‎(2014). ‎Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance and Molecular ‎Characterization of Escherichia coli from Faeces ‎of Apparently Healthy Rams and Goats in Ile-Ife, ‎Southwest, Nigeria. IJS,16 (3):447-460‎
  5. Adesokan, H. K., Akanbi, I. O., Akanbi, I. B. and Obaweda, ‎R. A. (2015). Pattern of ‎ antimicrobialusage in ‎livestock animals in south-western Nigeria: the ‎need for alternative plans. Onderstepoort J. Vet. ‎Res.,82 (1):01-06‎
  6. Adzitey, F., Sumaila, N. and Saba, C. K. S. (2015). Isolation ‎of E. coli from drinking water sources for humans ‎and farm animals in Nyankpala community of ‎Ghana. Res. J. Microbiol,10 (3):126-131‎
  7. Ahmed, W., Neller, R. and Katouli, M. (2005). Host species ‎specific metabolic finger print Database for ‎enterococci and Escherichia coli and its ‎application to identify source of faecal ‎contamination in surface waters. Appl. Environ. ‎Microbiol. 71 (8):4461-4468.‎
  8. Akanbi, B. O., Mbah, I. P. and Kerry, P. C. (2011). ‎Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on ‎ hides and faeces of ruminants at ‎slaughter in two major abattoirs in Nigeria. Lett. ‎Appl. Microbiol., 53:336–340‎
  9. Bahiru, A. A., Emire S. A. and Ayele, A. K. (2013). The ‎prevalence of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli ‎isolates from faecal and water sources. Acad. J. ‎Microbiol. Res., 1 (1):001-‎‎ 010 DOI:‎‎109 ISSN: 2315-7771‎
  10. Barrow, G. I. and Feltham, R. K.A. (2003). Cowan and ‎Steels Manuel for the Identification of Medical ‎Bacteria. (Paperback edition). Cambridge ‎University Press, Cambridge, 128‎
  11. Beutin, L, Montenegro, M. A., Orskov I, Oskov, F., Prada, J., ‎Zimmermann, S. and Stephen, R. (1989). Close ‎association of verotoxin (shigalike toxin) ‎production with enterohemolysin production in ‎strains of Escherichia coli. J. Clin. Microbiol., ‎‎27:2553–2561‎
  12. Bolton, D. J. (2011). Verocytotoxigenic (Shiga toxin-‎producing) Escherichia coli: virulence factors and ‎pathogenicity in the farm to fork ‎paradigm,Foodborne Pathog. Dis., 8(3):357-65 ‎DOI: 10.1089/fpd.2010.0699. Epub 2010 Nov 29.‎
  13. Bukar-kolo, Y. M., Peter, I. D., Bukar, M. M., Muhammad, ‎A. A., and Ayok, I. J. (2016). ‎ Prevalence and ‎Antibiotic Susceptibility of Aerobic Bacterial Flora ‎of the Skin, Wound and Anterior Vagina of Sheep, ‎Goats and Dogs in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Alex. J. Vet. ‎Sci., 49(2):6-12 ISSN 1110-2047, DOI: ‎‎10.5455/ajvs.218617‎
  14. Chattaway, M. A., Dallman, T., Iruke, N., Okeke, I. N. and ‎Wain, J. (2011). Enteroaggregative E. coli O104 ‎from an outbreak of HUS in Germany 2011, could ‎it happen again? J.Infect. Dev. Ctries, 5(6):425-‎‎436‎
  15. Chileshe, J. and Ateba, C. N. (2013). Molecular ‎identification of Escherichia coli 0145:H28 from ‎Beef in the North-West Province, South Africa. Life ‎Sci. J.,10(4):1171-1176‎
  16. Cid, O., Piriz, S., Riuz-Santa-Quiteria, J. A., Vadillo, S. and ‎de la Fuente, R. (1996). In vitro susceptibility of ‎Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrhoeic ‎lambs and goat kids to 14 antimicrobial agents. J. ‎Vet. Pharmacol. Ther,19:397-401‎
  17. CLSI (2018). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial ‎Susceptibility Testing. Clinical and ‎ Laboratory ‎Standards Institute. 28th edition.‎
  18. Cornick, N. A., Booher, S. L., Casey, T. A. and Moon, H. W. ‎‎(2000). Persistent colonization of sheep by ‎Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other E. coli ‎pathotypes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 66:4926–‎‎4934‎
  19. Croxen, M. A., Law, R. J., Scholz, R., Keeney, K. M., ‎Wlodarska, M. and Finlay, B. B. (2013). Recent ‎advances in understanding enteric pathogenic ‎Escherichia coli. Clin. Microbiol. Rev.26(4):822–‎‎880‎
  20. Diana, J. E., C. F. Pui, and Son, R. (2012). Enumeration of ‎Salmonella spp., Salmonella Typhi ‎ and Salmonella Typhimurium in fruit ‎juices. Int. Food Res. J., 19:51-56‎
  21. Disassa, N., Sibhat, B., Mengistu, S., Muktar, Y., and Belina, ‎D. (2017). Prevalence and ‎ Antimicrobial ‎Susceptibility Pattern of E. coli O157:H7 Isolated ‎from Traditionally Marketed Raw Cow Milk in ‎and around Asosa Town, Western Ethiopia. J. Vet. ‎Med. Int.‎
  22. Etcheverria A. I. and Padola N. L. (2013). Shiga toxin ‎producing Escherichia coli factors ‎ involved in ‎virulence and cattle colonization. Virulence, ‎‎4(5):366-372‎
  23. Fashina, C. D., Babalola, G. O. and Osunde, M. O. (2018). ‎Prevalence and Molecular ‎ Characterization of E. coli O157:H7 ‎Isolated from Water Bodies in Ile-Ife and ‎Environs. J. Bacteriol. Parasitol., 9 (4):340 ‎doi:10.4172/2155-9597.1000340‎
  24. Garba, I., Tijjani, M. B., Aliyu, M. S., Yakubu, S. E., Wada-‎Kura, A and. Olonitola, O. S. (2009). Prevalence of ‎Escherichia coli in Some Public Water Sourcesin ‎Gusau Municipal, North-Western Nigeria, ‎BAJOPAS, 2(2):134 - 137‎
  25. Griffin, P. M., Ostroff, S. M., Tauxe, R. V., Greene, K. D., ‎Wells, J. G., Lewis, J. H., Blake, P. ‎ A. (1988). ‎Illnesses Associated with Escherichia coli ‎O157:H7 Infections. A Broad Clinical Spectrum. ‎Ann. Intern. Med.,109:705- 712‎
  26. Jacob, M. E., Foster, D. M., Rogers, A. T., Balcomb, C. C. ‎and Sanderson, M. W. (2013). Prevalence and ‎Relatedness of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains ‎in the Faeces and on the Hides and Carcasses of ‎U.S. Meat Goats at Slaughter.Appl Environ. ‎Microbiol, 79(13): ‎ ‎4154–4158‎
  27. Kaper, J. B., Elliot, S., Sperandio, V., Perna, N. T., Mayhew, ‎G. F. and Blattner, F. R. (1998). Attaching and ‎effacing intestinal histopathology and the locus of ‎enterocyte effacement. In: Escherichia coli ‎O157:H7 and Other Shiga Toxin Producing E. coli ‎Strains. Kaper, J. B. and O’Brien, A. D. (Eds.). ASM ‎Press Washington DC, 163–182‎
  28. Karch, H., Meyer, T., Russmann, H. and Heesemann, J. ‎‎(1992). Frequent loss of shiga-like toxin genes in ‎clinical isolates of Escherichia coli upon ‎subcultivation. Infect. Immun. 60:3464–3467‎
  29. Karmali, M. A. (1989). Infection by verocytotoxin ‎producing Escherichia coli. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., ‎‎2:15–38‎
  30. Keen, J. E., Wittum, T. E., Dunn, J. R., Bono, J. L., and ‎Durso, L. M. (2006). Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia ‎coli O157 in agricultural fair livestock, United ‎States. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 12:780–786‎
  31. Krumperman, P. H. (1983). Multiple antibiotic resistance ‎indexing of Escherichia coli to identify high-risk ‎sources of fecal contamination of foods. Appl. ‎Environ. Microbiol., 46:165-170‎
  32. La Ragione, R. M. Best, A., Woodward, M. J. and Wales, A. ‎D. (2008).Escherichia coli O157:H7 colonization ‎in small domestic ruminants. FEMS Microbiol. ‎Rev., 33:394–410‎
  33. Lawan, M. K., Bello, M., Lawan, J., Grande, L. and ‎Morabito, S. (2015). Detection of ‎ Pathogenic ‎Escherichia coli in Samples Collected at an ‎Abattoir in Zaria, Nigeria and at Different Points in ‎the Surrounding Environment. Int. J. Environ. Res. ‎Pub. He., 12:679 691 doi:10.3390/ijerph12010067‎‎9‎
  34. Lawan, M. K., Bello, M., Lawan, J. and Morabito, S. (2017). ‎Detection of Verocytotoxin-Producing Escherichia ‎coli and Characterization of Sub-Variant of stx ‎Genes Isolated from Zango Abattoir and Its ‎Surrounding. NJSR, 16(4):412-419.‎
  35. Lenahan, M., O’Brien, S., Kinsella, K., Sweeney, T. and ‎Sheridan, J. (2007). Prevalence and molecular ‎characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on ‎Irish lamb carcasses, fleece and in faeces sample. ‎J. Appl. Microbiol., 103:2401–2409‎
  36. Lupindu, A. M. (2017). Epidemiology of Shiga toxin-‎producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Africa in ‎review. S. Afri. J. Infect. Dis., 1(1):1–7‎
  37. Mahendra, P. and Yodit, A. (2017). Public health ‎significance of verotoxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7. EC Microbiol, 11(6):257-263.‎
  38. Mandour, H. A., Hinawi A. M. H. and Xiulan S, (2016). ‎Comparative Study of Rapid DNA ‎ Extraction Methods of Pathogenic ‎Bacteria, American J. ‎Biosci. Bioeng., 4(1):1 8 Doi: 10.11648/‎‎0401.11 ‎
  39. Mersha, A. G. D, Zewde, B. M. and Kyule, M. (2010). ‎Occurrence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in faeces, ‎skin and carcasses from sheep and goats in ‎Ethiopia. Lett. Appl. Microbiol.,50: 71–76‎
  40. Nataro, J. P. and Kaper, J. B. (1998). Diarrhoeagenic ‎Escherichia coli. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 11 (1):142-‎‎201‎
  41. Ogden, I. D., MacRae, M., and Strachan, N. J. C. (2005). ‎Concentration and prevalence of Escherichia coli ‎O157:H7 in sheep faeces at pasture in Scotland. J. ‎Appl. Microbiol., 98: 646–651‎
  42. Olowe, O., Okanlawon, B., Olowe, R. and Olayemi, A. ‎‎(2008). Antimicrobial resistant pattern of ‎Escherichia coli from human clinical samples in ‎Osogbo, south western Nigeria. Afri. J. Microbiol. ‎Res., 1(2):8-11‎
  43. Onifade, A. K., Oladoja, M. A., and Fadipe, D. O. (2015). ‎Antibiotics Sensitivity Pattern of ‎ Escherichia ‎coli isolated from Children of School Age in Ondo ‎State, Nigeria. 7.‎
  44. Oporto, B., Esteban, J. I., Aduriz, G., Juste, R. A. and ‎Hurtado, A. (2008). Escherichia coli O157:H7 and ‎non O157 Shiga toxin producing E. coli in healthy ‎cattle, sheep and swineherds in northern Spain. ‎Zoonosis Public Hlth, 55:73–81‎
  45. Orden, J. A., Cid, D., Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, J. A., Garcı´a, S., ‎Martı´nez S. and de la Fuente R. (2002). Verotoxinproducing Escherichia coli (VTEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and necrotoxigenicE. coli ‎‎(NTEC) isolated from healthy cattle in Spain. J. ‎Appl. Microbiol., 93:29–35‎
  46. Paton, J. C. and Paton, A. W. (1998). Pathogenesis and ‎diagnosis of shiga toxin producing ‎ Escherichia ‎coli infections. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 11:450–459‎
  47. Pralhad, B. A., Ramesh, B. K., Patil, N. A., Kumar, P., Rao, ‎J. B., Vinay, P.T., Mallinath, K. C., Kharate, A., ‎Suryakanth, P. and Revappayya, M. (2018). ‎Occurrence of Escherichia coli ‎ O157:H7 in ‎Faecal Sample of Sheep and Goats in North East ‎Karnataka.Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci., ‎‎7(12):242-250‎
  48. Schilling, A., Hotzel, H., Methner, U., Sprague, L. D., ‎Schmoock, G., El Adawy, H., Wohr, A., Erhard, M. ‎H. and Geue L. (2012). Zoonotic Agents in Small ‎Ruminants Kept on City ‎ Farms in ‎Southern Germany. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.,78(‎‎11):3785-93 Doi:10.1128/Aem.07802-11 ‎
  49. Sharaf, E. F. and Shabana, I. I. (2016). Prevalence and ‎molecular characterization of Shiga toxin-‎producing Escherichia coli isolates from human ‎and sheep in Al-‎Madinah Al Munawarah. Infection. ‎‎
  50. Sharma, B., Parul, Verma, A. K., Jain, U., Yadav, J. K., ‎Singh, R. and Mishra, R. (2017). ‎ Occurrence of ‎multidrug resistant Escherichia coli in groundwater ‎of Brij region (UP) and its public health ‎implications, Vet.World,10(3):293-301‎
  51. Shittu, O. B., Nwagboniwe, C. A. K. and George, O. O. ‎‎(2007). Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of ‎Escherichia coli Isolates from Human, Pet, ‎Livestock and Poultry Living in Close Contact. ‎ASSET Series B,6 (2):164-170‎
  52. Thrusfield, M. (1997). Veterinary Epidemiology.Wiley, pp. ‎‎584.‎
  53. Urumova V., Lyutzkanov M. and Petrov V. (2015). ‎Investigations on Prevalence and ‎ Antimicrobial ‎Resistance of Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia ‎coli (EHEC) Among Dairy ‎ Farms in the ‎north part of the Republic of Bulgaria. Mac. Vet. ‎Rev., 38(1):21-29‎
  54. Wanke, C. A., Croven, S. and Goss, C. (1990). ‎Characterization of binding of E. coli strains which ‎are enteropathogens to small bowel mucin. Infect. ‎Immun., 58:794-800‎
  55. White, D. and Mcdermott, P. (2011): Emergence and ‎transfer of antibacterial resistance. J. Dairy ‎ Sci., ‎‎84: E151-155‎